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A History of Wine in America, Volume 1

From the Beginnings to Prohibition

Thomas Pinney

Publication Year: 2007

The Vikings called North America "Vinland," the land of wine. Giovanni de Verrazzano, the Italian explorer who first described the grapes of the New World, was sure that "they would yield excellent wines." And when the English settlers found grapes growing so thickly that they covered the ground down to the very seashore, they concluded that "in all the world the like abundance is not to be found." Thus, from the very beginning the promise of America was, in part, the alluring promise of wine. How that promise was repeatedly baffled, how its realization was gradually begun, and how at last it has been triumphantly fulfilled is the story told in this book.

It is a story that touches on nearly every section of the United States and includes the whole range of American society from the founders to the latest immigrants. Germans in Pennsylvania, Swiss in Georgia, Minorcans in Florida, Italians in Arkansas, French in Kansas, Chinese in California—all contributed to the domestication of Bacchus in the New World. So too did innumerable individuals, institutions, and organizations. Prominent politicians, obscure farmers, eager amateurs, sober scientists: these and all the other kinds and conditions of American men and women figure in the story. The history of wine in America is, in many ways, the history of American origins and of American enterprise in microcosm.

While much of that history has been lost to sight, especially after Prohibition, the recovery of the record has been the goal of many investigators over the years, and the results are here brought together for the first time.

In print in its entirety for the first time, A History of Wine in America is the most comprehensive account of winemaking in the United States, from the Norse discovery of native grapes in 1001 A.D., through Prohibition, and up to the present expansion of winemaking in every state.

Published by: University of California Press

Cover

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p. 1-1

TItle Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. iii-v

Contents

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p. vii-vii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-xi

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

This book is a continuation of my History of Wine in America: From the Beginnings to Prohibition, published by the University of California Press in 1989. Although the two books are connected, they have had to take very different forms. The task of the first volume was mainly to recover the story of repeated efforts to establish a wine industry that repeatedly failed and then, because they had failed, had been forgotten. In many places the ...

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1. Forms of Life in a Dry World

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pp. 1-33

On 16 January 1919 the senators of the Nebraska state legislature, by a vote of thirty-one to one, ratified the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, prohibiting the sale of alcoholic drink throughout the nation. With the Nebraska vote, the amendment received the required support of a two-thirds majority of the states for it to pass into law. Now it would become effective a year from the day of the clinching ...

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2. The Rules Change

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pp. 34-52

When the New Deal was yet young and Repeal still so recent that no one knew how things would develop, at least one man in Washington had a vision of what the future of wine in this country might be. This was Rexford Guy Tugwell, a member of President Roosevelt’s Brain Trust, that small group of bright, mostly young academics with ideas about what could be done with a well-planned, well-managed economy.1 Tugwell ...

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3. The Dismal '30s

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pp. 53-76

At the beginning of 1934, when a winemaker, returning to his newly legalized business, looked around him to see what his prospects were, he would have found little enough to cheer him. The economic depression, surpassing in length and intensity anything ever known in this country, showed no signs of lifting. The legislatures of state after state were busy laying new and unpredictable taxes on wine and inventing new laws to confuse ...

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4. Making and Selling Wine in the ’30s

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pp. 77-94

In 1933, before Repeal had come to pass but when its coming was already certain, Lou Stralla, having heard that the wine business might be a good thing, decided that he would give it a try, even though he knew nothing about wine or winemaking.1 Stralla took a simple and direct path: he approached the wealthy J. K. Moffitt, who owned the historic Charles Krug winery, then lying idle outside St. Helena in the Napa Valley, and asked Moffitt to ...

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5. Countercurrents

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pp. 95-117

If much was wrong with American winemaking after Repeal, there were at the same time significant efforts under way to make it better—countercurrents that eventually turned the tide. One of these efforts took shape as the Wine Institute. In 1932, as the prospect of Repeal began to seem not merely possible but probable, the Grape Growers League was created in order to work for the legalization of wine within the Volstead Act, or, more ...

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6. Wine in the War Years

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pp. 118-138

The chance that the war that was declared in September 1939 would open up the world to American wines—an exciting thought rather widely shared at one time—was more theoretical than real.1 Those few parts of Europe that were not caught up in the war were not much interested in American wines, even supposing one could safely transport them there; South America had its own supplies; there was war in Asia. None of the necessary ...

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7. Postwar Disappointments

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pp. 139-160

By the end of the war, late in 1945, the winemakers of the United States were like nervous racehorses at the starting gate, eagerly waiting for the signal to go. The end of wartime regulations and the easing of restrictions on materials and supplies did not happen at a single stroke, but conditions were su‹ciently changed by the beginning of 1946 to make that a year of unbounded expansion. The o‹cial view was euphoric. “Consumption is ...

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8. Back East

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pp. 161-191

The immediate postwar years are a convenient point from which to take a survey of American winegrowing outside California. In common with their California counterparts, the winegrowers in the rest of the country had had to endure Prohibition, struggle through the Depression years, and hang on during the war. Now, in the first moment of the postwar era, they shared the same euphoria. “Everyone connected with the industry is ...

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9. Changing Weather

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pp. 192-223

For many years after the war, the number of wineries in California continued its steady decline: there were 414 in 1945, 374 in 1950; not until 1970 was the decline arrested, then turned around.1 Over the same period, there was a gradual but steady increase in production. California produced 116 million gallons of wine in 1945; ten years later the figure was 147 million. In these conditions, as the fish grew fewer and the pond grew larger,

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10. The Big Change: California

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pp. 224-252

In 1960 Julian Street’s widow, Marguerite, was preparing a new edition of her husband’s pioneering book, Wines: Their Selection, Care, and Service, originally published in 1933 for the instruction and guidance of an American public in its regained freedom to drink.1 Julian Street had died in 1947, but his book continued to be read. His widow had prepared a second edition in 1948 and was now at work on a third. She wrote to her publisher ...

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11. A New Dawn (I): The Northern and Central States

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pp. 253-285

Maryland, quite apart from anything else that might be accomplished there, will always have an important place in the modern history of American winegrowing as the scene of Philip Wagner’s pioneering and deeply influential work.1 Starting in the early ’30s Wagner was the inspiration and the guide for countless enthusiastic grape growers and winemakers throughout the East. Wagner’s own winery, Boordy Vineyards (established ...

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12. A New Dawn (II): The South

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pp. 286-306

Maryland, quite apart from anything else that might be accomplished there, will always have an important place in the modern history of American winegrowing as the scene of Philip Wagner’s pioneering and deeply influential work.1 Starting in the early ’30s Wagner was the inspiration and the guide for countless enthusiastic grape growers and winemakers throughout the East. Wagner’s own winery, Boordy Vineyards (established ...

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13. The West without California

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pp. 307-338

Washington and Oregon, the two states that complete the Pacific Coast of the United States between California and Canada, are both schizoid territories. The Cascade Range runs north and south like a spine through both states, about a quarter of the way along their west-to-east dimension. On the western, maritime side, where the ocean is cooled by the Japan Current, it rains—a fact that provides for many well-worn jokes about the weather. ...

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14. California to the Present Day

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pp. 339-369

Since the revolution occurred in American wine, the wine industry’s road in California has often been bumpy and di‹cult, but never enough to turn back a steady movement of growth. A comparison of the figures from 1970, when the revolution had clearly begun, with those from the end of the century in 2000 shows the direction quite clearly.1 To start in the vineyards: In 1970 the acreage devoted to grapes of all kinds in ...

Notes

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pp. 371-480

Sources and Works Cited

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pp. 481-506

Index

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pp. 507-532

Production Notes

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p. 533-533


E-ISBN-13: 9780520934580
Print-ISBN-13: 9780520254299

Page Count: 572
Publication Year: 2007