Army of Shadows
Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917–1948
Publication Year: 2008
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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First, I wish to thank Abu-‘Atiyyah and his friends for inviting me, as aboy, to listen to their conversations, and the many Palestinian national-ists, “collaborators,” and Islamists who shared their views and experi-ences with me. Though this research is based on documents, I do believethat the long, long days I have spent among Palestinians since childhood...
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The large pine tree in Abu-‘Atiyyah’s vineyard, not far from ‘Ayn Yalu insouthern Jerusalem, was in the mid-1970s a meeting place for Palestinianfellahin from the surrounding area. Some of them, like Abu-‘Atiyyah,were refugees from the former village of al-Maliha. The tree alsoattracted roaming boys, like me, from nearby Jerusalem neighborhoods...
PART ONE - TWO NATIONALISMS MEET, 1917 – 1935
1 Utopia and Its Collapse
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In July 1921 a formal delegation representing Palestinian Arab nationalinstitutions set out for London in a desperate, last-minute attempt to per-suade Britain to back away from the Balfour Declaration and its commit-ment to allow Jewish immigration into Palestine. Hasan Shukri, mayor ofHaifa and president of the Muslim National Associations, sent the fol-...
2 Who Is a Traitor?
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The collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the British conquest of Palestinenot only brought about a change in Zionist policy; it also broughtPalestine and the rest of the Middle East into the age of nationalism.That required, and led to, a profound change in the self-perception of thePalestinian population. Previously, core identities and the most important...
3 We, the Collaborators
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In 1923 the Bedouin sheikhs of the Beit She’an Valley, members of theMuslim National Associations, invited British high commissioner HerbertSamuel to visit their camps. In their letter they told Samuel a little bitWe don’t meddle in politics, don’t attend rallies, and don’t send delega-tions. We are simple people who live in tents and deal with our own affairs...
PART TWO - REBELS AND TRAITORS, 1936 – 1939
4 Old Collaborators, New Traitors
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On 15 April 1936, armed Arabs, apparently acolytes of Sheikh Izz al-Dinal-Qassam of Haifa, murdered two Jews on a road near Tulkarem. Inresponse, members of Haganah Bet, a militant Jewish group that hadTikva. During the workers’ funeral, Arabs in Jaffa attacked Jews andmurdered nine of them. So began the great Arab rebellion. For Palestine’s...
5 Unity Ends
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The Peel Commission commenced its work in November 1936. Its mem-bers traveled through the country, heard testimony from both sides, andcould see that the British administration had reasserted control. Yet themost prominent Arab collaborators were still being pursued. A Haifapolice officer, Halim Basta, was murdered. He had contacts in the Yishuv...
6 The “Traitors” Counterattack
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On a dark and rainy night in winter 1938, three men set out for Jerusa-lem’s Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood: the Haganah’s commander in Jeru-salem, Ya‘akov Pat; Eliahu Sasson of the Jewish Agency’s Arab depart-ment; and Eliahu Elyashar of Jerusalem’s Jewish Committee. They borecrates of weapons for the antirebel force led by Fakhri Nashashibi. After...
PART THREE - WAR IN EUROPE, WAR AT HOME
7 World War, Local Calm
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The great Arab revolt disintegrated late in 1939. The rebel leadershiptried to cope with its military and political failure by initiating a newround of attacks on “traitors.” In June an intelligence source reportedthat the mufti had ordered the liquidation of all suspects, even those inhis own family. This repealed his previous directive to murder only...
8 Prelude to War
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Early in the evening of 9 November 1941, Fakhri Nashashibi left a meet-ing at a Baghdad residence and headed for his nearby hotel. The distancewas short, so he told his bodyguards that he would walk alone. A youngdays earlier, awaited him at the hotel entrance. When Nashashibiapproached him, Nusseibah drew a pistol and fired several shots. So...
9 Treason and Defeat: The 1948 War
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The war of 1948 ended with the severe defeat of the Arabs of Palestine andthe Arab countries that came to their aid. Palestinian Arab political insti-tutions collapsed. Hundreds of thousands of Arabs were uprooted fromtheir homes. Hundreds of Arab settlements were laid waste. The Pales-tinian Arab state envisioned by the partition plan was aborted. Instead, the...
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The study of Palestinian history during the British Mandate generallyfocuses on the national movement led by the mufti of Jerusalem, HajjAmin al-Husseini. Arabs who opposed al-Husseini or collaborated withthe Zionists are treated as marginal. This is a prejudiced view. It ignoresthe fact that cooperation and collaboration were prevalent, in a variety...
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Page Count: 352
Publication Year: 2008