Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation
The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects
Publication Year: 2008
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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...levels of biological organization, from individuals to clades. on higher-level patterns in the diversification of life, such asassociations with their host plants. This characteristic is bio-...
PART I: Evolution of Populations and Species
1 Chemical Mediation of Host-Plant Specialization: The Papilionid Paradigm
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...host-plant selection is generally carried out by the adult stage,critical chemical, physical, or visual cues for host-plant identi-fication may differ over the course of the life cycle. An organ-“the first barrier to be overcome in the insect-plant relation-soned that “after the restriction of certain groups of insects...
2 Evolution of Preference and Performance Relationships
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The sawfly is highly specialized: it oviposits only on shoots ofresources that facilitates the evolution of a strong preference-weaker than in E. lasiolepis. The spittlebug has a preference forance there is high. It also has an ovipositional preference hier-idago altissima and S. gigantea. Eurosta solidaginis survival is...
3 Evolutionary Ecology of Polyphagy
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...trade-off in an herbivore’s ability to efficiently utilize alter-one host-plant species (or related set of host species), an her-Theoretical Combinations of Host Specificity and Polyphagy at the Levels of Species Nested within a Larger Clade or LineageSpecialist Related specialists use phylogenetically Related specialists use phylogenetically Generalist Polyphagous species use phylogenetically Polyphagous species use phylogenetically ...
4 Phenotypic Plasticity
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...ing plasticity in two contexts: first, the various types of plas-adaptively by reducing such costs (step 3) (“Plasticity and Itsknown about the costs of plasticity (“Costs of Plasticity”).benefits of different forms of plasticity (“Relative Costs andFIGURE 4.1. Graphical depictions of phenotypic plasticity (A), its adaptive value (B), and its costs (C). A. The environ-...
5 Selection and Genetic Architecture of Plant Resistance
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...itability (h2) of resistance or resistance traits has been esti-Pastinaca sativa L. (for most furanocoumarins, h2 H11005 0.33–sica rapa L. (h2 H11005 0.56 H11006 0.14) (Ågren and Schemske 1994);glucosinolates in Brussels sprout hybrids B. oleracea L. (h2 H11005(Koch) (h2 H11005 0.54 H11006 0.21) (Traw 2002); and phenolic glyco-...
6 Introgression and Parapatric Speciation in a Hybrid Zone
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While definitive proof is generally lacking, especially for ani-may in some cases give rise to “evolutionary novelties” thathas the prevalence of adult oviposition “preference” and lar-“breaking” cues. Alternatively, it may be facultative, depend-Papilio H11005 Pterourus) have allopatric distributions separated...
7 Host Shifts, the Evolution of Communication, and Speciation in the Enchenopa binotata Species Complex of Treehoppers
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...88% of the males were E. binotata ‘Cercis,’ while 12% of the“whine”), followed by a series of pulses (Fig. 7.1A). Males pro-presented receptive females of one species (E. binotata ‘Vibur-populations of E. binotata ‘Celastrus,’ ‘Cercis,’ ‘Ptelea,’ andtraits in four E. binotata species (Rodríguez et al. 2006). For...
8 Host Fruit-Odor Discrimination and Sympatric Host-Race Formation
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...tive zone” and proliferate either because it is preadapted forwith “real-time” ecological analysis of the processes respon-species of host fruit that they infested as larvae (Feder et al.ual, like the toxic effect of a chemical or its association withtactile cues, with fruit volatiles being the key initial attrac-...
9 Comparative Analyses of Ecological Speciation
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...genetic architecture of speciation, that is, the roles played byadult stage so that virtually all life activities occur in associ-tophagic varieties” and “phytophagic species” (Walsh 1864,“comparative approach” is used, as this is an arena in which(Mitter et al. 1988). This seminal study employed the “sister-...
10 Sympatric Speciation: Norm or Exception?
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...its old heads was cut off,” admitted that “host races [of phy-this chapter is to suggest that at least as it applies to herbiv-specificity leads quickly to the issue of speciation. In review-impossible” if mating were based on a “two-allele” model ofspecies. In Diehl and Bush’s simulations, distinct host-specific...
PART II: Co- and Macroevolutionary Radiation
11 Host-Plant Use, Diversification, and Coevolution: Insights from Remote Oceanic Islands
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...levels. One illustration of this association is Farrell’s (1998)particular, their ability to disperse over water. A reduction of(Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in the Hawaii Archipelago (after Roderick1997). While continental Delphacini planthoppers (open bars) feedprimarily on monocotyledons, grasses, and sedges, Hawaiian species...
12 Selection by Pollinators and Herbivores on Attraction and Defense
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Selection by Pollinators and Herbivores on Attraction and Defensethat the “reason for existence” of plant secondary chemicalslution mediated by plant resistance traits (e.g., Farrell et al.visit in Centaurea solstitialis (Agrawal et al. 2000), and nectartors, pollinators could select for higher levels of plant resist-...
13 Adaptive Radiation: Phylogenetic Constraints and Ecological Consequences
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...plan of the group, dictated the use by sawflies of soft, rapidlyhost is the arroyo willow, Salix lasiolepis Benth. (Salicaceae).rapid. This limits the evolution of a life cycle, making it uni-cally only one is laid at a time. The time required to search for(maturation of eggs during the female’s life) is the norm. This...
14 Sequential Radiation through Host-Race Formation: Herbivore Diversity Leads to Diversity in Natural Enemies
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...birds (e.g., crossbills), crustaceans (e.g., parasitic copepods),ation” (Abrahamson et al. 2003). In this sense, sequential radi-ation is characterized by a diversification of taxa (e.g., naturaltion of their hosts (in this case, of herbivorous insects), whichdifferentiated as a consequence of shifts to novel host plants. ...
15 The Oscillation Hypothesis of Host-Plant Range and Speciation
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...speciation rates? It is the purpose of this chapter to suggest aoscillations described by M. C. Singer (this volume) as “peri-promote dispersal is almost inevitable.” This is because alle-ticity of offspring—especially in fitness-related life-historyFIGURE 15.1. A scheme for oscillations in host-plant range promot-...
16 Coevolution, Cryptic Speciation, and the Persistence of Interactions
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Coevolution, Cryptic Speciation, and the Persistence of InteractionsFIGURE 16.2. Ecological outcome of the interaction between Greyapolitella and Lithophragma parviflorum at Turnbull National WildlifeRefuge in Washington State and Rapid River, Idaho. Each pair of barsindicates whether the developing flower or the aborted flower is more...
17 Cophylogeny of Figs, Pollinators, Gallers, and Parasitoids
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...ticipant in this tritrophic interaction can illuminate historieshost organisms and their associated lineages is the first line ofthat error is associated with either phylogeny estimate. Ecolog-extinction, “missing the boat,” host switching, and host-inde-pendent speciation (Page 2003). “Missing the boat” refers to...
18 The Phylogenetic Dimension of Insect-Plant Interactions: A Review of Recent Evidence
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...1983) tacitly assumes, first, that the traits governing species’al. 2002; Cattin et al. 2004; DiMichele et al. 2004). Third, theticular groups, the estimation of relative frequencies of alter-+19.009.0-18.008.0-17.007.0-16.006.0-15.005.0-14.004.0-13.003.0-12.002.0-11.001.0-100.0lineages in the frequency of “major” host shifts (e.g., to dif-...
PART III: Evolutionary Aspects of Pests, Invasive Species, and the Environment
19 Evolution of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Plants
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...“If Darwin were alive today the insect world would delight andthat insightful passage in Silent Spring, evolution of insecticideconstraints, haplodiploidy, life-history traits, major and minorvariety of insects, including moths, beetles, and flies, yet thedoptera, called “mode 1,” entails strong resistance to one or...
20 Exotic Plants and Enemy Resistance
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...ple, exotics are often liberated from their entire suite of spe-282 EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF PESTS, INVASIVE SPECIES, AND THE ENVIRONMENTstudies (Table 20.1). In these studies, plant resistance to her-Outcome of Studies That Have Compared Resistance to Generalist and/or Specialist Herbivores and Pathogens among Native and Introduced PopulationsPlant Studied Generalists Specialists Approach Populations Authors...
21 Life-History Evolution in Native and Introduced Populations
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Spartina used as oyster packing material, or as eggs in Spartinafrom the water’s edge, as active nymphs nestled into leaf lit-ter, and protective leaf litter is critical for their winter sur-highly brachypterous (H1102285%), suggesting a rapid loss of dis-flight capability (Roff 1986, 1990; Denno et al. 1989, 1991). In...
22 Rapid Natural and Anthropogenic Diet Evolution: Three Examples from Checkerspot Butterflies
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...by a single butterfly species, Edith’s checkerspot, Euphydryasvariation of diet in E. editha and the idea that this variability312 EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF PESTS, INVASIVE SPECIES, AND THE ENVIRONMENTFIGURE 22.1. Spatial and temporal variation of diet in Edith’s checkerspot butterfly. Each pie diagram shows the proportion ofeggs laid on each host genus in a particular year. These are data accumulated between 1968 and 2005. Vertical columns show differ-...
23 Conservation of Coevolved Insect Herbivores and Plants
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...volved insect herbivores such as the tephritid gall fly Proceci-tion carried out at a large enough scale results in loss of hostthe dock’s coevolutionary “race” (Ehrlich 1970) with L. disparresult, the butterfly is restricted to serpentine habitat and is326 EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF PESTS, INVASIVE SPECIES, AND THE ENVIRONMENT...
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Page Count: 360
Publication Year: 2008