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Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores

Mark W Denny

Publication Year: 2007

Tidepools and rocky shores are among the most physically stressful environments on earth. When the tide is high, waves can sweep over plants and animals at velocities as high as 60 miles per hour, while at low tide, the same organisms dry up and bake in the sun. Yet despite this seeming inhospitality, tidepools and rocky shores are exceptionally complex and biologically diverse. This comprehensive encyclopedia is an authoritative, one-stop reference for everyone interested in the biology and ecology of this fascinating and uniquely accessible environment. Conveniently arranged alphabetically, nearly 200 wide-ranging entries written in clear language by scientists from around the world provide a state-of-the-art picture of tidepools and rocky shore science. From Abalones, Barnacles, and Climate Change through Seagrasses, Tides, and Wind, the articles discuss the animals and plants that live in tidepools, the physics and chemistry of the rocky shore environment, the ecological principles that govern tidepools, and many other interdisciplinary topics.

* Generously illustrated with hundreds of color photographs, drawings, and diagrams

* The only comprehensive volume available on tidepools and rocky shores

* Articles include in-depth looks at animal and algal diversity and overviews of the history of research, rocky shore management, and conservation

* Contributors are experts on physics and physical oceanography, experimental ecology, population genetics, taxonomy, and other disciplines

Published by: University of California Press

Cover

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p. 2-2

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

Table of Contents

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pp. v-x

Contents by Subject Area

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pp. xi-xiv

Contributors

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pp. xv-xxiv

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Guide to the Encyclopedia

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pp. xxv-xxvi

The Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores is a comprehensive, complete, and authoritative reference dealing with all of the physical and biological aspects of tidepool and rocky shore habitats. Articles are written by researchers and scientific experts and provide a broad overview of the current state of knowledge on these fascinating places. ...

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Preface

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pp. xxvii-xxviii

Rocky shores lie at the interface between the land and the sea, experiencing a Jekyll-and-Hyde existence of alternating terrestrial and marine habitats. When the tide is in, coastal plants and animals are bathed by seawater that exposes them to predators, moderates temperatres, delivers food, transports propagules, ...

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A

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pp. 1-60

Abalones are marine snails that play only a minor role in the functioning of marine communities yet are culturally and commercially important and are iconic species of kelp-dominated habitats. They were once tremendously abundant along the shores of much of the temperate zone, with large aggregations piled two or more layers deep along large stretches of rocky sea floor (Fig. 1). ...

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B

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pp. 61-120

Barnacles are crustacean arthropods, which means they are distantly related to such animals as crabs, lobsters, and shrimp. However, unlike their mobile cousins, barnacles have adopted a sessile existence. Barnacles are found on hard substrates in virtually all marine habitats ...

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C

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pp. 121-172

Camouflage is a means by which animals avoid detection by other animals by blending in with the environment. As a result, the animal may either not be perceived at all or be perceived to be something it is not, and thus ignored or avoided. ...

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D

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pp. 173-193

The threat of desiccation for organisms inhabiting the intertidal zone occurs during emersion at low tides or when organisms are positioned in the high intertidal zone, where wetting occurs primarily by spring tides, storm waves, and spray. ...

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E

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pp. 194-217

The phylum Echinodermata (from Greek echino-“spiny” and derma “skin”) contains exclusively marine animals with five-part (pentamerous) radial symmetry, distributed among five living classes: Asteroidea, sea stars (starfish) (Fig. 1A); ...

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F

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pp. 218-244

Facilitation occurs when an organism benefits from the presence of another organism that is not itself negatively impacted. Two types of facilitation, or positive interactions, are common in rocky intertidal communities: habitat-ameliorating positive interactions and associational defenses. ...

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G

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pp. 245-255

Measurement of genetic variation within and between species living on rocky shores shows a wide variety of different patterns that depends on population size, dispersal prowess, recent climate history, and other features of the physical and biological environment. ...

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H

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pp. 256-288

Rocky shore landscapes and the habitats contained therein are shaped by physical and biological disturbances that vary in their magnitude and duration. Many agents of disturbance act over broad regional scales, but others have more localized effects and can alter shore habitats ...

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I

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pp. 289-314

Ice scour is the physical disturbance of intertidal and shallow subtidal benthic communities caused by the mechanical abrasion of the rock surface by sea ice or the removal of organisms frozen into ice that forms on the shoreline and is subsequently transported away. ...

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K

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pp. 315-320

The large brown algae that dominate marine algal beds and forests of the world come from two major taxonomic groups. True kelps belong to the order Laminariales, which contains the largest marine plants and comprises the greatest mass of seaweeds in the coastal zone. ...

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L

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pp. 321-338

Most intertidal invertebrates have a complex life cycle involving a sedentary adult preceded by a planktonic larval stage (Fig. 1). Larvae typically colonize new habitat and recruit into existing populations. Settlement occurs when a competent larva touches down onto the substratum. ...

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M

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pp. 339-398

The intertidal zone is rich with biodiversity and contains many fragile habitats and species. At the same time, the intertidal zone is the most accessible marine habitat to humans. The coast provides a scenic setting for recreation on sandy beaches and exploration of rocky-intertidal habitats. ...

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N

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pp. 399-407

Oceanographers have long known that organisms are not distributed homogeneously in the water column. Distributions of plankton vary both horizontally and vertically across a continuum of temporal and spatial scales. ...

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O

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pp. 408-420

Wind-generated ocean waves are generally the most significant physical force involved in the erosion of coasts and experienced by wave-swept plants and animals that live along the shore. The heights of the waves generated by storms over the ocean commonly reach 10 to 15 meters, ...

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P

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pp. 421-453

A parasitic association is an intimate and durable relationship (symbiosis) between a smaller individual consumer and its larger prey (host). Each stage in the consumer’s life cycle can be a different type of association. Major types of consumers in these trophic interactions include macroparasites (typical parasites), ...

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R

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pp. 454-479

The number of individuals of a species at any given place can increase in only two ways: new births and immigration. For most species on rocky shores, these two sources of population growth are one and the same. Since the young of most marine species are released into the sea as plankton, they are moved by ocean currents. ...

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S

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pp. 480-577

Salinity is a measure of the total quantity of elemental salts that are dissolved in water, expressed as a pure number derived from a dimensionless ratio that describes the electrical conductivity of seawater. Salinity values are generally elevated in marine waters, where the total amount of dissolved salt ions is high. ...

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T

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pp. 578-603

Global climate change encompasses many indirect and direct impacts on the physiology and ecology of plants and animals. Changes in precipitation, sea level rise, nutrient availability, and rates of erosion are all predicted to occur in the coming decades over a range of spatial and temporal scales. ...

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U

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pp. 604-613

Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, because of its high energy, damages biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. UV radiation penetrates coastal seawater, where it may kill organisms outright, adversely affect diverse physiological processes ...

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V

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pp. 614-620

Changes in climate, ocean circulation, and ocean ecosystems with periods of about 50 years have been recently recognized and referred to as Pacific multidecadal variability. These climate or regime shifts have particularly large impacts on small pelagic fish such as anchovies and sardines. ...

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W

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pp. 621-646

Water chemistry is the collective term used to describe the types and amounts of all of the substances present in a particular sample of water, including dissolved salts, minerals, gases, nutrients, and other chemicals. Along with temperature, desiccation, and wave action, ...

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Z

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pp. 647-654

Biological zonation occurs when certain species occupy discrete bands or zones along an environmental gradient. Examples of zonation may be found from mountain tops, where plant species are zoned according to elevation, to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where microbes are zoned along thermal and chemical gradients. ...

Glossary

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pp. 655-686

Index

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pp. 687-706

The Editors

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pp. 736-739


E-ISBN-13: 9780520933750
Print-ISBN-13: 9780520251182

Page Count: 735
Publication Year: 2007

Series Title: Encyclopedias of the Natural World