Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture
Publication Year: 2006
Published by: University of California Press
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The evolution of human subsistence economies has always been a major topic of anthropological interest. Within this domain the transition from foraging to farming and the emergence of horticultural/ agricultural economies has occupied a central place. ...
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For twenty-five years human behavioral ecology (HBE) has provided a general conceptual framework for the analysis and interpretation of hunter-gatherer subsistence behavior in living and prehistoric societies. Similar micro-economic models have received preliminary application in the study of pastoral and agroecological adaptations. ...
1Behavioral Ecology and the Transitionfrom Hunting and Gathering to Agriculture
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...1 H11001 2, db H11005 1 H11001 2 H11001 3, up to db H11005 1 H11001 . . . H11001 k)....
2A Future Discounting Explanation for thePersistence of a Mixed Foraging-HorticultureStrategy among the Mikea of Madagascar
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...300 250 200 150 100 50 0300 250 200 150 100 50 0300 250 200 150 100 50 0Discount Rates Revealed in Experiments with Nonwestern Peoples, Converted Across Time Units (Original Units in Bold)Mikea (Tucker in prep) 49 Real cups of cooking 0.30–0.70 9.13–21.32 109.65–...
413Central Place Foraging and Food Production on theCumberland Plateau, Eastern Kentucky
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FIGURE 3.1. Graphical version of the central place foraging model. The horizontal axis represents time, with travel time increasing to the left of the origin and time spent foraging increasing to its right. The vertical axis measures energy ac-quired. The curved line shows the returns curve expected while foraging within the patch. The two straight lines T1ret andT2ret are drawn tangent to the returns curve from points representing different amounts of travel time (T1 and T2) on thehorizontal axis. The slope of each line indicates the rate of return expected from the patch at that distance when round-trip...
4Aspects of Optimization and Risk During the EarlyAgricultural Period in Southeastern Arizona
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FIGURE 4.3. Examples of early agricultural period houses from Los Pozos.cally significant (Rs H11005 H11002.41; p H11021 .00). There are,or statistically significant (Rs H11005H11002.26; p H11005 .18),FIGURE 4.4. Trends in the mean number of plant taxa in southern Arizona archaeological sites.FIGURE 4.5. Trends in the mean number of animal taxa in southern Arizona archaeological sites....
5A Formal Model for PredictingAgriculture among the Fremont
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FIGURE 5.1. Map showing the approximate locations of important sites in the Fremont region FIGURE 5.3. Comparison of caloric return rates for foraging and farming in the Fremont region from data in Barlow 1997;Barlow and Metcalfe 1996; Jones and Madsen 1991; Madsen et al. 1997; Simms 1987 (from Barlow 2002)....
6An Ecological Model for the Origins of Maize-BasedFood Production on the Pacific Coast ofSouthern Mexico
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FIGURE 6.1. Study area showing the position of Archaic and Early Formative Period sites.FIGURE 6.2. Cross section of the Soconusco region showing geographical features and primary biotic zones.Selection of Plants and Animals from Different Environmental Zones in the Soconusco Selection of Plants and Animals from Different Environmental Zones in the Soconusco Note: See Feddema 1993 for complete list. LZ H11005 littoral zone; ST H11005 short tree savanna; CP H11005 coastal plain; P H11005 piedmont....
7The Origins of Plant Cultivation and Domesticationin the Neotropics
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FIGURE 7.1. (a) The major types of forest and other vegetation types in the lowland American tropics of Mid-dle and Central America. Areas in black indicate elevations above 1500 m above sea level 1. Tropical evergreenforest; 2. Tropical semi-evergreen forest: 3. Tropical deciduous forest; 4. Savanna; 5. Low scrub/grass/desert; 6.Mostly cactus scrub and desert; (b) The major types of forest and other vegetation types of South America; 1.Tropical evergreen forest (TEF); 2. Tropical semi-evergreen forest (TSEF); 3. Tropical deciduous forest (TDF);...
8Costly Signaling, the Sexual Division of Labor,and Animal Domestication inthe Andean Highlands
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FIGURE 8.1. The Río Asana drainage showing the locations of major Archaic period sites.FIGURE 8.2. Location of high-quality plant patches in the Río Asana valley.Chenopodium Productivity and Distribution in the Río Asana ValleyMean and range of total productivity, 49,400 kg; 38,885–67,165 kgMean and range of total productivity, 8,160 kg; 6,240–10,560 kg...
9Human Behavioral Ecology, Domestic Animals, andLand Use during the Transition to Agriculture inValencia, Eastern Spain
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Note: Unless otherwise noted, data from Bogucki (1982) as summarized in Gregg (1988). VDomestic Animals in Descending Rank Order According to Different CharacteristicsNote: Compiled from Gregg 1988; Glass 1991; Redding 1981; Russell 1988.intensive hoe-based agriculture primarily sheep and goat husbandryaggregated villages in remnant valley bottoms and valley margins...
10Breaking the Rain Barrier and the Tropical Spread ofNear Eastern Agriculture intoSouthern Arabia
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FIGURE 10.1. Map of the Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea with three domestication centers. The indicated former summer limitof the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a speculation based on paleoenvironmental and archaeological evidencefrom southern Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula, Rajasthan, and the African Sahara.Domesticates and Dates from the Levant, East Africa, and South Asian Sub-continentNote: Boldface indicates an indigenous plant or animal thought to be domesticated in the region listed. All references are cited in text....
11The Emergence of Agriculture inNew Guinea
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FIGURE 11.1. Map of New Guinea showing sites referred to in the text with inset of Upper and Middle Wahgi Valley. PapuaNew Guinea is the country that includes the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands, with theIndonesian province of Irian Jaya or West Papua occupying the western half. The island of New Guinea, sometimes referredto as mainland New Guinea, has a mountainous interior referred to as the Highlands and which usually denotes land aboveContemporary Altitudinal Tolerances for Some Plants Potentially Present in Inter-montane ...
12The Ideal Free Distribution, Food Production,and the Colonization of Oceania
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FIGURE 12.1. Map of Oceania showing the relevant islands and archipelagos.FIGURE 12.2. Colonization mobility in Oceania during the last 35,000 years (see Anderson 2001a).FIGURE 12.3. A) Ideal free distribution (after Fretwell and Lucas 1970, 24; Sutherland 1996, 5); B) Allee’s principle FIGURE 12.4. Hypothetical IFD models for mobile foraging and food production on small and large islands....
13Human Behavioral Ecology and the Transition toFood Production
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Human behavioral ecology and foraging theory offer frameworks for considering and characterizing variation and change in human subsistence patterns, both across a range of environmental gradients and through time (Winterhalder and Smith 2000). ...
30414Agriculture, Archaeology, andHuman Behavioral Ecology
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Note: Without discounting, coati and paca are equal in rank. If the discount rate is greater than zero(0) coati outranks paca. The discount rate is set arbitrarily here at 0.30 and time at 1.0, kcals beingdiscounted according to the formula kcals/(11td), where t H11005 time and d H11005 discount rate....
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...seasonal tropical forest, 137–38, 151–52, 157, 165. See also...
Page Count: 407
Publication Year: 2006
Series Title: Origins of Human Behavior and Culture