Evolution and Paleobiology
Publication Year: 2005
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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This volume was developed from a symposium dedicated to Jack McIntosh presented at the 2001 Society of Vertebrate Paleontology annual meeting, which we convered with Dan Chure. We thank Jack McIntosh for allowing us to organize a symposium in his honor. We also ...
Introduction: Monoliths of theMesozoic
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FIGURE I.1. Caricature of Diplodocus longus by George Gaylord Simpson (from Simpson 1987).Species Counts and Pages Devoted to Systematics in The Dinosauria, 2nd EditionNOTE: Introductory chapters that contained no species descriptions (i.e., “Saurischia,” “Ornithischia”) are not included in the pageFIGURE I.2. Temporal distribution and relationships of major lineages of dinosaurs during the Triassic and Jurassic. The vertical barrepresenting sauropod lineage duration is divided into a black section (pre-2000) and a gray section with asterisk (post-2000). Icons...
1 • OVERVIEW OF SAUROPOD PHYLOGENY ANDEVOLUTION
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..., as drawn by Ryder in 1877 under the direction of Cope. Later published in Osborn and Mook (1921:pl. 82). FIGURE 1.3. Hypotheses of the relationships of sauropod dinosaurs based on (left) Wilson and Sereno (1998) and (right)FIGURE 1.4. Phylogenetic relationships of sauropod genera based on Wilson (2002). Dashed lines indicate nodes that arelost in trees two steps longer than the most parsimonious tree. Taxonomy has been updated for Rayososaurus (=Limaysaurus[Salgado 2004]) and “Titanosaurus” colberti (=Isisaurus [Wilson and Upchurch 2003])....
2 • TITANOSAURIA: A PHYLOGENETICOVERVIEW
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Titanosauria (Bonaparte and Coria 1993) Andesaurus delgadoi (Calvo and Bonaparte 1991),Lithostrotia (Upchurch et al. 2004) Malawisaurus dixeyi (Haughton 1928), SaltasaurusSaltasauridae (Bonaparte and Powell 1980) Opisthocoelicaudia skarzynskii (Borsuk-BialynickaSaltasaurinae (Bonaparte and Powell 1980) All saltasaurids more closely related to SaltasaurusOpisthocoelicaudiinae (McIntosh 1990) All saltasaurids more closely related to...
3 • PHYLOGENETIC AND TAXIC PERSPECTIVES ONSAUROPOD DIVERSITY
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FIGURE 3.1. Taxic diversity estimates for sauropod genera and species obtained by Hunt et al. (1994). AAL, Aalenian; ALB,Albian; APT, Aptian; BAJ, Bajocian; BAR, Barremian; BAT, Bathonian; BER, Berriasian; CAL, Callovian; CAM, Campanian;CAR, Carnian; CEN, Cenomanian; CON, Coniacian; HAU, Hauterivian; HET, Hettangian; KIM, Kimmeridgian; MAA,Maastrichtian; NOR, Norian; OXF, Oxfordian; PLI, Pliensbachian; RHA, Rhaetian; SAN, Santonian; SIN, Sinemurian; TTH,FIGURE 3.3. A schematic diagram showing the effect of polytomies on...
4 • SAUROPODOMORPH DIVERSITY THROUGHTIME: MACROEVOLUTIONARY ANDPALEOECOLOGICAL IMPLICATONS
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FIGURE 4.1. Sauropodomorph taxic diversity estimates (TDEs). (A) TDE for the Prosauropoda (based on data from Galtonand Upchurch  and Weishampel et al. ; see appendix 4.1). N H11005 20. (B) TDE for the Sauropoda (based on datafrom Upchurch et al.  and Weishampel et al. ; see appendix 4.2). N H11005 98. (C) Plot of the relative abundances(expressed as proportions of the total number of sauropodomorph genera) of prosauropods and sauropods in the LateTriassic and Early Jurassic. See text for description and further details. Aal, Aalenian; Alb, Albian; Apt, Aptian; Baj, Bajocian;...
5 • STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF A SAUROPODTOOTH BATTERY
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FIGURE 5.1. Preliminary reconstruction of the skull of Nigersaurus taqueti based on MNN GDF512. (A) Skull in left lateralview. (B) Left lower jaw in dorsal view with tooth batteries removed. 1–5, accessory cranial fenestrae; a, angular; altr, alveolartrough; antfe, antorbital fenestra; ar, articular, br, buccal ridge; cp, coronoid process; d, dentary; d1–d34, replacement foram-ina for dentary tooth positions 1–34; emf, external mandibular fenestra; en, external naris; f, frontal, fo, foramen; j, jugal; ltf,laterotemporal fenestra; m, maxilla; mc, Meckel’s canal; nf, narial fossa; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; popr, paraoccipital...
6 • DIGITAL RECONSTRUCTIONS OF SAUROPODDINOSAURS AND IMPLICATIONS FORFEEDING
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DIGITAL RECONSTRUCTIONS OF SAUROPODS, IMPLICATIONS FOR FEEDING 179180 DIGITAL RECONSTRUCTIONS OF SAUROPODS, IMPLICATIONS FOR FEEDINGDIGITAL RECONSTRUCTIONS OF SAUROPODS, IMPLICATIONS FOR FEEDING 181182 DIGITAL RECONSTRUCTIONS OF SAUROPODS, IMPLICATIONS FOR FEEDINGFIGURE 6.1. The cervical vertebral columns of articulated skeletons of (A) crocodilian (Gavialis gangeticus), (B) turkey (Melea-...
7 • POSTCRANIAL PNEUMATICITY IN SAUROPODSAND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MASSESTIMATES
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FIGURE 7.1. Pneumatic features in dorsal vertebrae of Barapasaurus (A–D), Camarasaurus (E–G), Diplodocus (H–J), andSaltasaurus (K–N). Anterior is to the left; different elements are not to scale. A, A posterior dorsal vertebra of Barapasaurus.The opening of the neural cavity is under the transverse process. B, A midsagittal section through a middorsal vertebra ofBarapasaurus showing the neural cavity above the neural canal. C, A transverse section through the posterior dorsal shownin A (position 1). In this vertebra, the neural cavities on either side are separated by a narrow median septum and do not...
8 • THE EVOLUTION OF SAUROPOD LOCOMOTION:MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF ASECONDARILY QUADRUPEDAL RADIATION
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FIGURE 8.1. Limb bone scaling associated with limb posture in dinosaurs. Reduced major axis regressions showing bipeds (open circles, solid lines), “semi-bipeds” (filled circles, dottedlines), and quadrupeds (open squares, dashed lines) from all dinosaur clades. (A) Femoral anteroposterior diameter versus length; (B) humeral anteroposterior diameter versus length.There are few scaling differences among the femora of different groups, but increasingly negative...
9 • STEPS IN UNDERSTANDING SAUROPODBIOLOGY: THE IMPORTANCE OF SAUROPODTRACKS
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FIGURE 9.1. The Purgatoire tracksite in southeastern Colorado. (Photo courtesy of USDA Forest Service.)FIGURE 9.2. Simplified cladogram of the sauropods (after Salgado et al. 1997; Upchurch 1998; Wilson and Sereno 1998),showing only taxa that can be discriminated partially based on podial characters of representative sauropods, with pes (above)and manus (below) in anterior and proximal views: Vulcanodon (after Raath 1972); Shunosaurus (after Zhang et al. 1984);Omeisaurus (after Wilson and Sereno 1998); Apatosaurus (after Gilmore 1936); Camarasaurus (after Farlow 1992); Brachiosaurus...
10 • NESTING TITANOSAURS FROM AUCA MAHUEVOAND ADJACENT SITES: UNDERSTANDINGSAUROPOD REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR ANDEMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
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UNDERSTANDING SAUROPOD REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR AND EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENTLuis M. Chiappe, Frankie Jackson, Rodolfo A. Coria, and Lowell Dingus FIGURE 10.2. Aerial photograph showing egg-beds 3 and 4 at Auca Mahuevo. These egg-beds can be traced later-FIGURE 10.4. (A) Auca Mahuevo clutch (Museo Carmen Funes, Plaza Huincul, Argentina; MCF-PVPH-258; quarryof egg-bed 3 illustrated in fig. 10.5) containing nearly 40 eggs. (B) and (C) Scanning electron micrograph and thin...
11 • SAUROPOD HISTOLOGY: MICROSCOPIC VIEWSON THE LIVES OF GIANTS
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FIGURE 11.1. Interspecific and ontogenetic variation in sauropod size. At hatching, sauropods were likely H11021 1 m long andunder 10 kg. As adults, sauropod sizes ranged from 7 m long and 10,000 kg (e.g., Saltasaurus) to 30 m long and approach-ing 100 tons (e.g., Argentinosaurus). Most sauropod adults (e.g., Diplodocus, Camarasaurus ) fall in the middle of this range.FIGURE 11.2. Bone fiber organization. (A) Endosteal, lamellar zonal bone presents a parallel alignment of hydroxyapatitecrystals and collagen fibers, and results in a striated texture under polarized light. (B) Periosteal, parallel-fibered bone and...
A Conversation with Jack McIntosh
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List of Contributors
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Page Count: 358
Publication Year: 2005