The Conservation Status of United States Species
Publication Year: 2005
This compendium—presenting new data, reviews of current literature, and comprehensive species accounts—reinforces what scientists have begun to suspect, that amphibians are a lens through which the state of the environment can be viewed more clearly. And, that the view is alarming and presages serious concerns for all life, including that of our own species.
The first part of this work consists of more than fifty essays covering topics from the causes of declines to conservation, surveys and monitoring, and education. The second part consists of species accounts describing the life history and natural history of every known amphibian species in the United States.
Published by: University of California Press
Download PDF (120.3 KB)
Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
Download PDF (50.3 KB)
Download PDF (47.0 KB)
Download PDF (29.4 KB)
...the 215 contributors to this volume for their efforts, for work-gency of this effort. I am humbled. I also thank a subset of thesemittee (Ione DeOllos), Ball State University; Office of Academicfrom the staff at Ball State University: Contracts and Grants Of-fice (Sharon Armbrust, Sharon Harris) and Library Services ( Jan...
Download PDF (27.9 KB)
Download PDF (51.7 KB)
...of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinoisof Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IllinoisIntegrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California...
Download PDF (58.1 KB)
...in the scientific and popular press. These reports typically openized into six regions—Nearctic, Palearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental,ico. The United States is further divided into twelve divisions—DAPTF is To determine the nature, extent, and causes of declines inthe declines can be halted or reversed. Toward these ends, three...
PART ONE - Conservation Essays
Download PDF (20.7 KB)
Download PDF (12.5 KB)
1 Diverse Phenomena Influencing Amphibian Population Declines
Download PDF (59.6 KB)
...say why amphibians are declining. In this chapter, I briefly dis-Scientific and media attention in the last twelve years has beenPacific Northwest of the United States. This attention is appro-raises serious doubts about the efficacy of protection as a meansclines that have occurred in protected areas, there is a growing...
2 Why Are Some Species in Decline but Others Not?
Download PDF (55.8 KB)
...golden toads’ (Bufo periglenes) activity in 1972, these toads haveing month, I could not find harlequin frogs (Atelopus varius) atals. In the literally hundreds of times I had censused the streamin recent years, harlequin frogs were always abundant, no mattercongregated at rain pools in the elfin forest and harlequin frogs...
3 Philosophy, Value Judgements, and Declining Amphibians
Download PDF (68.2 KB)
As quoted, Shapin’s (1996) view of how the modern natural sci-“society is kept at bay.” Being trapped by “the problem of in-might allow the ecologists to draw “strong inferences” (Platt,The very idea of the modern natural sciences is bound up with anought to be, while the possibility of such a radical distinction ...
4 Embracing Human Diversity in Conservation
Download PDF (40.7 KB)
...statement is succinct: To conserve amphibians, reptiles and theirproactive and coordinated public/private partnerships. Therefore, Iof individuals and organizations ever to work together to addressa regional, national, and global scale. Diversity is a symbol ofLikewise, diversity is essential for societies and organizations...
5 Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force
Download PDF (65.1 KB)
...tile scientific societies held special sessions at annual meetings.lated to the state of the science. It was readily apparent that in-other areas—especially the tropics, where most of the world’sreliability and compatibility of data. In the absence of generallywere sufficiently consistent to require attention. If, as is widely...
Download PDF (12.5 KB)
6 Meeting the Challenge of Amphibian Declines with an Interdisciplinary Research Program
Download PDF (91.4 KB)
...practical matter, we could not invite all researchers with an in-tions that highlighted the central issues: (1) Is the threat of ex-synergistically: habitat destruction, exotic species, disease, andcause amphibian declines are straightforward—places where frogsteam effort to coordinate the research activities of diverse agen-...
7 Biology of Amphibian Declines
Download PDF (76.0 KB)
...surviving adults return to breed again the next year—the stor-implicated in any population decline, an “Evil Quartet” con-tion declines (see Caughley, 1994), this is a valid classificationof evils, but not necessarily a classification relevant to the reac-the loss of other species resulting in perturbation of food webs...
8 Declines of Eastern North American Woodland Salamanders
Download PDF (148.1 KB)
North America in the course of studies on the life histories, sys-dant. In the 1990s, I returned to 127 of my sites in order to in-to estimate the extent of the declines. Data are available for 205of several species throughout the seasons of their surface activ-ity in order to investigate the life histories of these salamanders...
9 Decline of Northern Cricket Frogs (Acris crepitans)
Download PDF (106.7 KB)
...in all parts of Illinois,” and Hay (1892) similarly indicated itCampbell (1977) published the first report of a cricket frog de-cline in the relatively small area occupied by the species in ex-least part of the area was protected as the Point Pelee NationalGreenwell et al., 1996); Indiana (Minton, et al., 1982; Vial and...
10 Overwintering in Northern Cricket Frogs (Acris crepitans)
Download PDF (163.6 KB)
...dominate 6–9 months of the year, this season has received rel-overwintering method of northern cricket frogs (Acris crepitans)(and thus heaviest) at 4 H11034C (Marchand, 1991), so a frog restingto eat hibernating frogs (e.g., 20% of the trout captured duringcentrations to levels that are lethal to amphibians (e.g., Barica...
Download PDF (12.5 KB)
11 Repercussions of Global Change
Download PDF (60.6 KB)
...used industrial gases were depleting the earth’s protective ozoneAs part of the overall “biodiversity crisis,” many amphibianBeasley et al., this volume). These factors operate across multi-ple scales, often have synergistic relationships, and can triggerthe introduction of invasive alien species (e.g., Tilapia, trout)...
12 Lessons from Europe
Download PDF (152.8 KB)
...tions—in those cases, as a rule, factors are readily identified asto observed declines is often difficult to clearly establish (Henleand Streit, 1990). Thus, there is frequently not a clear distinc-effective conservation efforts since it leads to the prediction ofpotential causes results from regular surveys of a specific geo-...
13 Risk Factors and Declines in Northern Cricket Frogs (Acris crepitans)
Download PDF (236.1 KB)
...cricket frogs were essentially absent at least as far south as thedata) indicates that individual cricket frogs in some wild popu-tentially serve as indicators of recent environmental pollution.cricket frogs in the northern part of their range may predisposethat may be involved in the decline of northern cricket frogs in...
14 Ultraviolet Radiation
Download PDF (51.0 KB)
...earth’s surface. Higher wavelengths are less efficiently absorbedstratospheric ozone (see Blaustein et al., 1994c). UV-B radiationcause cell death or genetic mutations. Seasonal increases in UV-Birradiance linked to stratospheric ozone depletion are well doc-has increased in temperate latitudes (van der Leun et al., 1998)....
Download PDF (82.7 KB)
Published in 1962, Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring was an impas-nell and Miller, 1984). Indeed, Carson’s book now seems rathergreat enough to generate direct mortality (see also Hayes et al.,cleotides. All these classes may either singly enter the environ-ment or in mixtures (Rand et al., 1995; Diana and Beasley, 1998)....
16 Variation in Pesticide Tolerance
Download PDF (77.7 KB)
...clines has been difficult to establish because in some instancesthriving (e.g., K.R. McAllister et al., 1993). Similar variation canbe observed within a single species at the population level—thereare often instances when some populations of a particular speciesare declining while others remain unaffected (e.g., northern leop-...
17 Lucké Renal Adenocarcinoma
Download PDF (218.7 KB)
...(Rana pipiens) was originally described by Balduin Lucké duringthe 1930s (Lucké, 1934a,b, 1938a). Lucké’s contribution to thisInstitute’s Peyton Rous had identified a virus as the etiologicalmalignancy, then the malignancy could not be a “true cancer.”(two-thirds of a century later) that in addition to several ani-...
18 Malformed Frogs in Minnesota: History and Interspecific Differences
Download PDF (121.9 KB)
...literature, and these reports have been thoroughly reviewed priorto the recent “outbreak” of malformations (Van Valen, 1974) asnon (Ouellet, 2000; Lannoo et al., 2003). Merrell (1969) reportedpipiens) from a Minnesota site at a frequency of 14.8% during latelimbs, missing limbs, and a missing eye (Helgen, 1996). Investi-...
19 Parasites of North American Frogs
Download PDF (799.2 KB)
...“learned,” through natural selection, to tolerate each other rel-rans. First, as a source of instruction; frogs are often utilized influkes and are characterized by a complex indirect life cycle in-their life cycle. Depending upon the species of trematode, frogsof frogs and enter the frog intestine when bits of epidermis are...
20 Parasite Infection and Limb Malformations: A Growing Problem in Amphibian Conservation
Download PDF (285.3 KB)
...cline (Ouellet et al., 1997a; Helgen et al., 1998; Burkhart et al.,et al., 1998), pesticides (Ouellet et al., 1997a; Burkhart et al.,literature. In the second section, we assume that an increase inplex life cycles, which typically involve two or more hosts (see(Johnson et al., 1999; Fig. 20-1). Over a two-year period, we in-...
21 Pine Silviculture
Download PDF (236.3 KB)
...posed entirely of sedimentary deposits of limestone, clay, sand,a small amount of gravel, and peat. Biologically, it is one of theboth turtles and snakes reach their highest species densities infrogs peaks in the Coastal Plain (Kiester, 1971) and salamandersA little over a decade ago, biologists alerted the public to de-...
22 Commercial Trade
Download PDF (57.1 KB)
...this trade. In addition to posing a threat to native populationsdifferent genetic stock and exotic species that may be invasive.that it totally regulates the pet industry. In fact, this law defines9 CFR, Chapter 1, Parts 1–4), and by definition leaves no provi-sions for the regulation of “cold blooded” animals, including...
Download PDF (12.6 KB)
23 Houston Toads and Texas Politics
Download PDF (218.3 KB)
...cataclysmic events of recent origin. It is more probable that de-clines in the United States began in earnest at least as far back aswidely used in agricultural areas across the United States to thepresent day. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the lay-ing of drainage tiles in tilled fields began and continues to the...
24 Amphibian Conservation Needs
Download PDF (102.9 KB)
...that are often unfamiliar to research scientists, many conserva-Wildlife Service in the Pacific Region (Koch) and a professor ofThroughout their history, citizens in the United States have ex-pressed an interest in conserving native species of fish, wildlife,“wildlife friendly”), whereas others represent sweeping legisla-...
25. Amphibian Population Cycles and Long-Term Data Sets
Download PDF (167.9 KB)
...as the leading causes for extinction rates that are 100 to 1,000Biodiversity Assessment, 1996; Chapin et al., 1998). Such lossespopulations are regulated by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic1992; Stenseth, 1993), there is a dearth of basic ecological in-tion cycles (see Green, this volume). This information is critical...
26 Landscape Ecology
Download PDF (246.9 KB)
...mentation on biological diversity (see Saunders et al., 1991 forserve systems (e.g., Robbins et al., 1989; Pearson, 1993; Flathervide breeding habitat for 11 frog and toad species (Naugle et al.,We used call survey data collected in 1997–98 in eastern Southpipiens), and striped chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata triseriata...
27 Conservation of Texas Spring and Cave Salamanders (Eurycea)
Download PDF (79.3 KB)
...in the city of Austin (Travis County); San Marcos Springs in theflows through the city of Austin), a smaller aquifer system sup-genus Eurycea are known, and all are restricted to caves with waterwe include in the genus Eurycea two species formerly assigned toall populations of Eurycea in central Texas are paedomorphic (i.e.,...
28 Lessons from the Tropics
Download PDF (92.5 KB)
...(Crump et al., 1992; Pounds et al., 1997; Lips, 1998, 1999; Wil-and Grant, 1998), as well as in Australia (Richards et al., 1993).lective (i.e., not all species at a given locality are affected). De-collapse” of Drost and Fellers, 1996). One of the biggest differ-(Sessions and Ruth, 1990; Johnson et al., 1999; Sessions et al.,...
29 Taxonomy and Amphibian Declines
Download PDF (72.7 KB)
This is especially true of conservation efforts with a goal of thewith some authorities going so far as to state that the Linneaenwhich a species is defined as the largest lineage on a single phy-concept defines the species as “the smallest diagnosable clusternetic species, but not all taxonomists find it acceptable. Those...
30 Conservation Systematics: The Bufo boreas Species Group
Download PDF (263.0 KB)
...tinction of the divergent island populations of tuataras (Daugh-erty et al., 1990; Finch and Lambert, 1996) is exemplary. Despiteextinct because divergent tuatara lineages did not have the Lin-diversity within the few extant tuatara subspecies is valuable forlineage, of which they are the sole representatives, is sister to a...
31 Factors Limiting the Recovery of Boreal Toads (Bufo b. boreas)
Download PDF (441.4 KB)
Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much ofSouthern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these massmortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infec-sent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Col-...
32 Southwestern Desert Bufonids
Download PDF (69.4 KB)
...comprising of almost 400 species that inhabit a great variety oftion in the United States are federally listed as “endangered:”and Houston toads (B. houstonensis); golden toads (B. periglenes)States, and eleven of these occur in the arid Southwest (Collins,1997; see also Crother et al., 2000). Although most of the desert...
33 Amphibian Ecotoxicology
Download PDF (60.4 KB)
...wide suggests that current research efforts need to take new, bi-that “existing test protocols might be inappropriate” to evalu-consider the effects on multiple life history stages. One of thetive amphibian species (e.g., African clawed frogs [Xenopus lae-vis]) or broadly distributed species (e.g., northern leopard frogs...
34 Museum Collections
Download PDF (57.1 KB)
...ity” and handed in to the professor as part of our evaluation fortained at the institution (or in some cases in the personal col-century has resulted in hundreds of smaller collections at insti-issues; we look at both the benefits and costs of collections toscientific institutions and society, and then attempt to suggest...
35 Critical Areas
Download PDF (179.2 KB)
The global decline of amphibians has received a great deal of at-and serves as an indicator of a larger problem involving the de-pollution and siltation, and the introduction of exotic predators1991; Petranka et al., 1993, 1994; Vial and Saylor, 1993; Fishersuch as Fowler’s toads (Bufo fowleri) and Blanchard’s cricket frogs...
36 Creating Habitat Reserves for Migratory Salamanders
Download PDF (68.3 KB)
Habitat loss and fragmentation results in the reduction and iso-(Saccheri et al., 1998). While local extinctions are often part ofdispersal and thereby hinders or prevents the rescue effect (Rehders. Massachusetts is the third most densely populated state inthe union, with an average of 765 residents per square mile, ten...
37 Population Manipulations
Download PDF (76.2 KB)
In recent years in North America and in other locales, there hasthat it forced researchers to double efforts to ensure that theyclines in many scattered regions or for the deformities reportedhabitats to clear land for agriculture, increase hunting success,ification, especially draining wetlands, clearing forests, plow-...
38 Exotic Species
Download PDF (59.3 KB)
...creasingly relevant and disconcerting topic of exotic species. Aspecies (Table 38-1): green and black dart-poison frogs (Dendro-bates auratus); Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis); co-quis (Eleutherodactylus coqui), greenhouse frogs (E. planirostris);pand this list to include American bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana) and...
39 Protecting Amphibians While Restoring Fish Populations
Download PDF (48.8 KB)
The “success” of this effort is now recognized as a serious im-cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) and arctic grayling (Thymallusonly if the non-native trout are removed. The park’s recent de-protect indigenous wildlife, as well as by science-based princi-obstacles: politics, in the form of opposition from a segment of...
40 Reflections Upon Amphibian Conservation
Download PDF (75.0 KB)
River Gorge National River, the Bluestone National Scenic River,(P. punctatus). I draw from these years of experience to presentservation of cave salamanders in large fissures. Obviously, cavesalamanders, it is impossible to assess whether or not the mines890–987 m. The forest had been clearcut in 1992, and skid road...
SURVEYS AND MONITORING
Download PDF (12.6 KB)
41 Distribution of South Dakota Anurans
Download PDF (255.9 KB)
...tion line as a transect origin. We then established transects oneast-west roads closest to the latitude of origin; transects were(e.g., Interstate 90) from transect selection to reduce auditoryland densities (H11022 75 wetlands/km2), we surveyed at least threeet al., 1995; see also Mossman et al., 1998). We identified call-...
42 Nebraska’s Declining Amphibians
Download PDF (57.4 KB)
...which all species that have bred will have larvae in ponds acrossstate’s amphibians (McLeod, 1999). I revisited Lynch’s origi-10 July 1998) I visited 267 sites, of which 181 were original sitessampled by Lynch. Ninety-six of Lynch’s original sites were lo-available for sampling due to land-use changes or disappearance;...
43 Museum Collections Can Assess Population Trends
Download PDF (69.8 KB)
...causes of disappearances (Heyer et al., 1994; Fellers and Freel,historical data. However, detecting shallow declines is difficultcused collection efforts on Louisiana’s Florida parishes. BecauseAn assumption of this analysis is that the variability in collec-tion efforts by different individuals and institutions is reduced...
44 Monitoring Salamander Populations in Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Download PDF (222.6 KB)
...ever, little effort has been made to evaluate the underlying as-using cover objects and leaf litter refugia in response to chang-moisture levels. Because salamander surface activity is likely tolandscape variables, the ability to detect animals may also varythat n1/n2 H11005 [C1/b1]/[C2/b2] H11005 C1/C2, where n H11005 population...
45 North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP)
Download PDF (78.2 KB)
K. Phillips, 1994). In 1991, out of this concern, scientists andtory and natural history features. Therefore, the original goal ofcourtship. This roadside calling survey is now the sole focus ofscale, its non-invasive nature, and the success of auditory sur-Breeding Bird Survey, a volunteer-based program for this protocol...
46 Evaluating Calling Surveys
Download PDF (69.3 KB)
...surveys are most applicable to eastern and northern parts of thefrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consistently call during their breedingseasons, but many of the other species call either infrequently,quietly, or sporadically only following heavy rains and are thusdistribution patterns with ancillary variables, it is also possible...
47 Geographical Information Systems and Survey Designs
Download PDF (198.5 KB)
...(1998), and Krzysik (1998a). In the past, GIS required expensiveworkstations, software that was difficult to use, expert techni-cians, and considerable resources for acquiring spatial data in athat the results will be provided in a format that can be readilybrought into the sponsoring organization’s GIS. The role of GIS...
48 Impacts of Forest Management on Amphibians
Download PDF (55.0 KB)
Each of these nine forests is about 1,000 acres in size. When thespecies typical of Missouri’s hardwood forest. In 1990, each for-array trapping is a passive sampling technique, trapping effortsother single trapping technique is as effective when considering(Fig. 48-1). Pitfall traps (five-gallon buckets) are positioned at...
49 Monitoring Pigment Pattern Morphs of Northern Leopard Frogs
Download PDF (376.1 KB)
...genes (i.e., their increase and retention in a population) is intheir success, but we can and do record the results. It is fair toBritish Columbia in the west, a distance of over 4,000 km (Pace,the dorsal body surfaces (Fig. 49-1B). This “spotless” frog wassal spots on their bodies and limbs (Fig. 49-1C). They were also...
Download PDF (12.6 KB)
50 The National Amphibian Conservation Center
Download PDF (50.1 KB)
...lions, etc.) to bring the public through the gates—it is a simpleing out beer brand names), amphibians are in the public’s con-ner of Island Lake and is “immersed” in a created wetland habi-ians are exhibited in this wetland area. The building itself ap-is dedicated to public-access space; the other half contains off-...
51 A Thousand Friends of Frogs: Its Origins
Download PDF (54.3 KB)
Friends of Frogs proposed to the state legislature to begin an am-amphibians, and in particular frogs; and to involve the public inlocal environment issues, including ones that affect amphibians.phibians and explore the status of populations in their state. Astal arena where students can be just as effective as scientists with...
Download PDF (12.6 KB)
52 Of Men and Deformed Frogs: A Journalist's Lament
Download PDF (54.3 KB)
...that it was hard to stop. A mystery in biology is a mystery with-directions—into the past and toward the future. For a biologist,the challenge is to delimit a problem to a set of testable infer-ences. For a journalist, the upshot is that stories in biology havelanguage. Naturally, this leads to a recurrent lack of agreement...
PART TWO - SPECIES ACCOUNTS
Download PDF (15.8 KB)
Download PDF (811.2 KB)
...tant life history and natural history features, such as terrestrialcomplete life cycles in trees or in caves. For most species, how-idea of typical clutch size or location, and for species observedlinks each species with geospatially referenced units. With thesetools, it is possible to map distribution patterns for individual...
Download PDF (3.9 MB)
First Occurrences of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) in California Counties1968 Westminster flood control Orange St. Amant and Hoover (1969)1992 Chino Hills State Park San Bernardino B. Goodman, personal commun.insects beetles, moths, dragonflies and damselflies, wasps (Schwalbe and Rosen, 1999); beetles (Stuart, 1995); Araneae, Collembola, Odonata, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, larval Trichoptera, larval ...
Download PDF (6.9 MB)
...aged 12.3H11034C (range H11005 5.0–19.0 H11034C, n H11005 280;aged 10.1 H11034C (range H11005 8.8–15.0 H11034C, n H11005 40;Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) Density Estimates....
FACTORS IMPLICATED IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES IN THE UNITED STATES
Download PDF (351.0 KB)
...graphic patterns for these effects. In this analysis I rely on in-each of these species with regard to the stability of its distri-purpose of this analysis is to identify taxonomic and geographicpatterns in species status. In particular, I evaluate differencesI reviewed earlier drafts of the species accounts for each amphib-...
Download PDF (38.1 KB)
In Part Two we present the life history and natural history fea-ment of their distribution. In assembling the literature for thisproject, and with a quick look at the species accounts, what im-mediately is noticeable is that a few species are well known andleast part of this problem arises from an increasing tendency for...
Download PDF (1.1 MB)
Abbott, C.C. 1882. Notes on the habits of the Savannah cricket frog.Abbott, C.G. 1934. Cold-blooded vertebrates. Smithsonian ScientificAbbott, P.L. 1975. On the hydrology of the Edwards Limestone, south-Abdullah, A.R., C.M. Bajet, M.A. Matin, D.D. Nhan and A.H. Suli-Abourachid, A. and D.M. Green. 1999. Origins of the frog-kick? Alter-...
Download PDF (155.3 KB)
Page Count: 1115
Publication Year: 2005