The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia
Publication Year: 2003
Stanish provides a broad comparative framework for evaluating how these complex societies developed. After giving an overview of the region's archaeology and cultural history, he discusses the history of archaeological research in the Titicaca Basin, as well as its geography, ecology, and ethnography. He then synthesizes the data from six archaeological periods in the Titicaca Basin within an evolutionary anthropological framework.
Titicaca Basin prehistory has long been viewed through the lens of first Inca intellectuals and the Spanish state. This book demonstrates that the ancestors of the Aymara people of the Titicaca Basin rivaled the Incas in wealth, sophistication, and cultural genius. The provocative data and interpretations of this book will also make us think anew about the rise and fall of other civilizations throughout history.
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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List of Figures
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List of Maps
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List of Tables
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The unfortunate peculiarity of the history of man is, that although its separate parts have been examined with considerable ability, hardly anyone has attempted to combine them into a whole, and ascertain ...
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My first trip to the Titicaca Basin was in 1982, as the guest of the late Victor Barua and his wife, Lucy Barua. I was fascinated by the people and archaeology of this region and have returned every year since 1985 to conduct or plan research. At the time of those early trips, I realized that archaeologists and naturalists had worked in the region ...
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This book is based on many seasons of research in Moquegua, Puno, and Bolivia. There are many people and institutions who have provided invaluable help. I wish to thank the Programa Contisuyu and, in particular, Michael Moseley, Don Rice, the late Victor Barua, Lucy Barua, Nelson Molina, and ...
1 Ancient Collasuyu
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MAP 1.3. Hypothesized late Middle Formative–period polities, with selected regional centers.MAP 1.4. Hypothesized Upper Formative–period polities at the height of Pucara, with selected regional centers.MAP 1.5. Hypothesized late Upper Formative–period polities after the collapse of Pucara (circa A.D. 200–300) and prior to TiwanakuMAP 1.6. Hypothesized areas under direct Tiwanaku control at its height, circa A.D. 800–900.MAP 1.7. Hypothesized pattern of political control and influence of the Tiwanaku state at its height, circa A.D. 800–900....
2 The Evolution of Political Economies
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For centuries, social philosophers and anthropologists have tried to systematically and rationally explain the emergence of complex society in the great centers of world civilization. Since at least the late nineteenth century, anthropologists have realized that the shift from Neolithic or Formative village societies to ranked ...
3 The Geography and Paleoecology of the Titicaca Basin
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WILD PLANTSa Kora, kentu, Kora, muni Kora, llapa Kora, totora, Kora, All types of GEOGRAPHY Low areas or Low areas or Terraces, Pampas, All areas High areas,CULTIVARS Papa dulce, Papa negra, Pakoya, chikilla, Barley, beans, Papa amarga Mainly ocaa These wild plants are herbs or industrial plants that have economic value to the Aymara farmers.SOURCE: Reported by Abbott, Binford, Brenner, and Kelts 1997: 169. ...
4 The Ethnography and Ethnohistory of the Titicaca Basin
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Census of Lupaqa Tribute Payers from the Diez de San Miguel Visita in 1567ILAVE Hanansaya and Hurinsaya combined. Aymara: 1,470; Uru: 1,070 2,540YUNGUYU Hanansaya and Hurinsaya combined. Aymara: 1,039; Uru: 381 1,420a Chinchasuyu mitimas listed as “Indians” of Hanansaya moiety.Lupaqa Census of Alonso de Buitrago in the Diez de San Miguel Visita in 1567...
5 The History of Archaeological Research in the Titicaca Basin
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...terms “‘dull,’ ‘stolid,’ and ‘unimaginative’ . . . in theFIGURE 5.1. Earlier chronologies utilized in the Titicaca region.FIGURE 5.7. Major pukara on the Island of the Sun, Bolivia. Photograph by the author.FIGURE 5.9. Minor pukara near Juli, western Titicaca Basin. Photograph by the author....
6 The Origins and Elaboration of Rank in the Early and Middle Formative Periods
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FIGURE 6.5. Site size distribution of Middle Formative sites in theTOTAL POPULATION (HECTARES)a 23.04 32.72 62.86 74.16 178.49 153.75NOTE: Numbers are from the site registry in Stanish et al. 1997; sites...
7 The Rise of Competitive Peer Polities in the Upper Formative Period
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...d This refers to the site area defined by Portugal (1989) that includesPopulation per Habitation Site Type per Period in the Juli-Pomata Survey AreaType Formative Formative Tiwanaku Altiplano Late Horizon Early ColonialNOTE: The data reflect the population as measured by total habitation area in hectares and the relative population size as a percentage of the total.Fortified sites (Type 5) were not counted in this tabulation, and therefore percentages do not equal 100%....
8 The First State of Tiwanaku
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TENOCHTITLÁN 12–15 160,000–200,000 Sanders and Webster 1988MAP 8.2. Known Tiwanaku sites in the Peruvian (west-southwestern) Titicaca Basin....
9 The Rise of Complex Agro-Pastoral Societies in the Altiplano Period
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...“kingdoms,” “chiefdoms,” “manors,” “feudal estates,”...
10 Conquest from Outside: The Inca Occupation of the Titicaca Basin
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FIGURE 10.2. Inca pottery. Reproduced courtesy of the Field Museum, Chicago, catalog no. 2957.Absolute population size as measured in hectares Middle FormativeFIGURE 10.7. Inca-period bridge near the Pajchiri Peninsula, Bolivia. Photograph by the author.Selected Towns and Their Tribute Items as Listed in the Toledo TasaSelected Towns and Their Tribute Items as Listed in the Toledo Tasa...
11 The Evolution of Complex Society in the Titicaca Basin
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...“royal seat or site [asiento],” “king,” “señor,” or sim-...
APPENDIX: Selected Terms from the 1612 Aymara Dictionary of Ludovico Bertonio
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Ccapaca: “royal seat or site [asiento]” (Bk. 1: 75); “king,”Hatha: “caste,” “family,” “ayllu,” “seeds of plants, men,Saapiyri: “fiscal” or “protector” or “office holder of theCollca: “granaries to store food,” “granaries of the Inca”Sucatha: “to till a field using raised fields” (Bk. 2: 323);...
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Page Count: 384
Publication Year: 2003