The Anthropology of Genocide
Publication Year: 2002
Published by: University of California Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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... ⁄ vii. The Dark Side of Modernity: Toward an Anthropology of Genocide . ’ : Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, and Robert K. Hitchcock / . : ...
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
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..... Diagram Showing the Origins and Diﬀusion of the Swastika .. “Naked Maoists before a Naked Wall”: Members of the Kommune —A Socialist Collective of Young Maoists, West Berlin / .. Nude Sunbathers in an Urban Public Park (Englischer Garten), “Garden of Eden” (Paradise), West Berlin, / ...
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Anthropologists and human rights activists have not been natural partners. An an-thropologist tends to accept a culture as it is. A human rights activist tends to iden-tify injustices in a culture and work to change them. An anthropologist illuminatesthe diﬀerences among cultures. A human rights activist highlights cross-culturalcommonality. An anthropologist respects a broad range of value systems that are...
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Throughout history, entire populations have fallen victim to systematic genocide.During the twentieth century alone, we have witnessed the intentional destruc-tion, in whole or in part, of such groups as Armenians, Jews, Cambodians, Hutusand Tutsis, Bosnians, and indigenous peoples. Despite the urgent need to under-stand the origins and eﬀects of such devastation, anthropologists have not yet fully...
1. The Dark Side of Modernity: Toward an Anthropology of Genocide
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As we stand on the edge of the millennium, looking back at modernity’s wake, geno-cide looms as the Janus face of Western metanarratives of “civilization” and“progress.”1 With the rise of the nation-state and its imperialist and modernizingambitions, tens of millions of “backward” or “savage” indigenous peoples perishedfrom disease, starvation, slave labor, and outright murder. Sixty million others were...
PART ONE. MODERNITY'S EDGES: GENOCIDE AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
2. Genocide against Indigenous Peoples
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It is sad that few of us are surprised when we hear of genocides committed againstindigenous peoples. We may be outraged or sickened, but, if we have any knowl-edge of the grim history of contacts between indigenous peoples and other soci-eties, we are unlikely to be surprised. The reason is that the defining characteristicof indigenous peoples is not simply, as is often supposed, that they were “there”...
3. Confronting Genocide and Ethnocide of Indigenous Peoples: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Denition, Intervention,Prevention, and Advocacy
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The plight of indigenous peoples has been underscored by what one analyst hascharacterized as “the often genocidal process of colonization and the long historyof land dispossession” (Burger :). Time and again, various indigenous groupshave seen their lands, cultures, and their very lives encroached upon, if not out-right destroyed (Chalk and Jonassohn :–, –; Churchill ; Hitch-...
PART TWO. ESSENTIALIZING DIFFERENCE: ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN THE HOLOCAUST
4. Justifying Genocide: Archaeology and the Construction of Difference
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It is one of the terrible ironies of the systematic extermination of one people byanother that its justification is considered necessary. As Norman Cohn has argued,“[H]owever narrow, materialistic, or downright criminal their own motives maybe, such men cannot operate without an ideology behind them. At least, when op-erating collectively, they need an ideology to legitimate their behavior, for without...
5. Scientific Racism in Service of the Reich: German Anthropologists in the Nazi Era
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Almost sixty years after the invasion of Poland by the Nazis in World War II, anold man stands shaking by his door, afraid to meet the anthropologists who havecome to talk to him. He says he does not have anything to tell; he was sick, in thehospital at the time. Another villager is not hesitant and tells of the time of the Nazioccupation of Poland when anthropologists came into the town under SS guard,...
PART THREE. ANNIHILATING DIFFERENCE: LOCAL DIMENSIONS OF GENOCIDE
6. The Cultural Face of Terror in the Rwandan Genocide of 1994
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For the past fifteen years anthropology’s central concept, the concept of culture, hascome under withering attack. Some have criticized its use as overly reifying. Othersclaim that no human group has ever been characterized by a single coherent set ofnorms, beliefs, and attitudes. Still others view the notion of culture as excessivelyrule-oriented and deterministic—too much of a “cookie-cutter” and as such in-...
7. Dance, Music, and the Nature of Terror in Democratic Kampuchea
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On a wooden platform in front of hundreds of weak, emaciated people, dancersdressed in loose tops and trousers, checkered scarves around their necks or waists,dark caps on their heads, and rubber tire sandals on their feet, stand in formation.Armed Khmer Rouge soldiers patrol around the silent audience. The dancers thenproceed to march—walking in unison, arms swinging in rhythm with their legs—...
8. Averted Gaze: Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1992–1995
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This chapter examines some of the social and political structures that convergedin the case of Bosnia-Herzegovina (B-H) and created a framework that enabledcertain people to commit crimes against humanity at the end of the twentieth cen-tury in Europe. It argues that the particular kind of personalized violence directedtoward individuals because they belonged to, or were identified with, a specific...
PART FOUR. GENOCIDE'S WAKE: TRAUMA, MEMORY, COPING, AND RENEWAL
9. Archives of Violence: The Holocaust and the German Politics of Memory
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This essay is an attempt to understand the transformative potential of public mem-ory. My focus is on the modalities of symbolic violence in German culture after and their historical nexus with Nazism and genocide. My research suggeststhat German public memory is infused with visions of corporeal violence that havepersisted in a more or less unbroken trajectory from the Third Reich until today....
10. Aftermaths of Genocide: Cambodian Villagers
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This paper explores some eﬀects of the massive mortality rate that Cambodia sus-tained in the s, especially during the regime of Democratic Kampuchea (DK)under Pol Pot. It focuses in particular on a Khmer peasant village of rice cultiva-tors, Svay, that Ebihara originally studied in – and that she and Ledgerwoodrevisited several times through the s.1 Genocide, coupled with the Khmer...
11. Terror, Grief, and Recovery: Genocidal Trauma in a Mayan Village in Guatemala
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In the hot, humid afternoon of Saturday, February , , a long column of sol-diers moved with an angry, deliberate gait down a muddy path toward Santa MariaTzejá, a small, isolated village in the rain forest of northern Guatemala. As thetroops approached, the terrified inhabitants scattered in every direction into thesurrounding forest, having heard that the military had massacred the people of a...
12. Recent Developments in the International Law of Genocide: An Anthropological Perspective on the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
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Anthropologists have always been concerned with the well-being of politically weakpeoples around the world. Consequently they find the genocidal attacks on de-fenseless populations in Rwanda, Burundi, Bosnia, Kosovo, East Timur, and otherlands especially distressing. As part of their humanistic and scientific enterprise,anthropologists endeavor to understand the root causes and nature of these most...
PART FIVE. CRITICAL REFLECTIONS: ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE STUDY OF GENOCIDE
13. Inoculations of Evil in the U.S.-Mexican Border Region: Reflections on the Genocidal Potential of Symbolic Violence
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Simply describing genocide or denouncing it after it occurs has certain uses but is a far cry fromThe shortcomings of the present world order have never been so glaringly appar-ent as when we consider the failure of the international system either to predict orforestall genocide. Political philosopher Richard Falk argues that international in-tervention in genocide and, presumably, measures taken to prevent it will always...
14. Coming to our Senses: Anthropology and Genocide
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Modern anthropology was built up in the face of colonial genocides, ethnocides,mass killings, population die-outs, and other forms of mass destruction visited onthe marginalized peoples whose lives, suﬀering, and deaths have provided us witha livelihood. Yet, despite this history—and the privileged position of the anthro-pologist-ethnographer as eyewitness to some of these events—anthropology has...
15. Culture, Genocide, and a Public Anthropology
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What is, or should be, the distinctive anthropological contribution to the study ofgenocide? The essays in this book point toward what we might call the culturalanalysis of group violence, a mode of analysis that focuses on both individual actsof violence and public representations of group diﬀerences, and that searches forconnections between the two.1 Ultimately we wish to know whether some ways of...
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
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Bettina Arnold is an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at theUniversity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She conducts field research in southwestGermany, with a particular emphasis on the pre-Roman Iron Age (see http://www.uwm.edu/~barnold/). She has been investigating the symbiotic relation-ship between archaeology and politics, especially in the context of National ...
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Akayesu, Jean-Paul, , –, , –justice by, ; apartheid and, –; contribu-–, –; silence on genocide of, –, –, –; Rwandan practices relatingto, –, –, –, –; and the...
Page Count: 419
Publication Year: 2002
Series Title: California Series in Public Anthropology