We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

American Poetry in Performance

From Walt Whitman to Hip Hop

Tyler Hoffman

Publication Year: 2013

American Performance Poetry is the first book to trace a comprehensive history of performance poetry in America from Whitman through the rap-meets-poetry scene and to show how the performance of poetry is bound up with the performance of identity and nationality in the modern period. This book will be a meaningful contribution both to the field of American poetry studies and to the fields of cultural and performance studies, as it focuses on poetry that refuses the status of fixed aesthetic object and, in its variability, performs versions of race, class, gender, and sexuality both on and off the page. Relating the performance of poetry to shifting political and cultural ideologies in the United States, Hoffman argues that the vocal aspect of public poetry possesses (or has been imagined to possess) the ability to help construct both national and subaltern communities. In doing so, American Performance Poetry explores public poets’ confrontations with emergent sound recording and communications technologies as those confrontations shape their mythologies of the spoken word and their corresponding notions about America and Americanness.

Published by: University of Michigan Press


pdf iconDownload PDF (66.3 KB)
p. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF (106.7 KB)
pp. 2-9


pdf iconDownload PDF (60.1 KB)
pp. ix-11

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (180.8 KB)
pp. 1-15

In 1882 in his book Specimen Days and Collect,Walt Whitman published a short reiterative prose piece called “Ventures, on an Old Theme.” In it, he makes his case again for an American poetry free of meter and rhyme, insisting, “In these States, beyond all precedent, poetry will have to do with actual facts, with the concrete States,...

read more

Chapter 1 - Walt Whitman “Live”: Performing the Public Sphere

pdf iconDownload PDF (322.4 KB)
pp. 16-54

Whitman is not well known for having recited his poetry out loud to others, and is on record as saying that he was “nothing of a reader,” that, in fact, he preferred not to read his own work and couldn’t recite it in any event, since he didn’t have it memorized (WWWC, 9:124). Despite such claims, he did perform on...

read more

Chapter 2 - The Ordeal of Vachel Lindsay, or The Cultural Politics of the Spoken Word

pdf iconDownload PDF (312.1 KB)
pp. 55-87

Although Vachel Lindsay is not well known today, for a time during the ‹rst half of the twentieth century he was one of the most popular poets in the United States. Harriet Monroe, who printed Lindsay’s ‹rst poem in 1913 in her in›uential magazine Poetry, noted of him in 1924: “the obscure aspirant of ten years ago has become probably the best and farthest known of all our American...

read more

Chapter 3 - “ The Black Man Speaks”: Langston Hughes, the New Negro, and the Sounds of Citizenship

pdf iconDownload PDF (359.6 KB)
pp. 88-123

Perhaps surprisingly, in light of the sometimes racist impersonations/ ventriloquizings of earlier white poets, black spoken-word artists coming of age in the 1920s looked back to both Whitman and Lindsay as models for their performance of race and nation and theorizing of the relation between speech and text. Hughes, for one, visited Whitman’s Camden, New Jersey, home in 1927...

read more

Chapter 4 - Beat Acoustics, Presence, and Resistance

pdf iconDownload PDF (374.8 KB)
pp. 124-161

The poets of the beat generation had their ears to the ground, too, keenly aware of the history of public performance poetry unrolling toward them, a history in both black and white. In an early draft of his poem “America” (the same title as the poem of Whitman’s on wax cylinder), Ginsberg unabashedly announces his paternity: “I Allen Ginsberg Bard out of New Jersey take up the laurel...

read more

Chapter 5 - “Rappin’ and Readin’ ”: The Frequencies of the Black Arts

pdf iconDownload PDF (340.7 KB)
pp. 162-198

A network of black poets of the 1960s and 1970s were as insistent on the spoken word and its public effects as their precursors had been, even if their politics of performance radically differed. Larry Neal, a prime agent of the Black Arts movement (what he termed the “aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept”), insisted that “the poet must become a performer, the way James Brown is a performer...

read more

Chapter 6 - Slam Nation: Immediacy, Mediatization, and the Counterpublic Sphere

pdf iconDownload PDF (301.1 KB)
pp. 198-229

Perhaps to overcome the charge of trendiness, contemporary artists of the rap-meets-poetry scene have constructed for themselves a family tree, one with many arcing branches, to authenticate their performativity and af‹rm their identitarian politics. Bob Holman, a slam poet and one of the poetry slam’s best-known impresarios (he led the effort to reopen the Nuyorican Poets Cafe, a ma...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (98.5 KB)
pp. 230-234

As Dana Gioia points out in his 2004 book Disappearing Ink, we currently are living through a cultural revolution, one in which “print has lost its primacy in communication”; as he observes, “the most surprising and signi‹cant development in recent American poetry has been the wide-scale and unexpected reemergence of popular poetry, a poetry that is predominantly oral and informed...


pdf iconDownload PDF (325.2 KB)
pp. 235-262


pdf iconDownload PDF (120.5 KB)
pp. 263-271

E-ISBN-13: 9780472029631
Print-ISBN-13: 9780472035526

Page Count: 296
Publication Year: 2013