Carrots, Sticks, and Ethnic Conflict
Rethinking Development Assistance
Publication Year: 2001
Published by: University of Michigan Press
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This book originated in a conference held at Cornell University as part of a series of inquiries—originally sponsored jointly by the Peace Studies Program and the Institute for European Studies of Cornell’s Mario Einaudi Center for International Studies—on the implications of ethnic conflict for international affairs. Two earlier volumes focusing on international...
1. Projects and Policies, Politics and Ethnicities
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Ethnic conflict¹ has often jarred the international community with its ferocity and durability. The causes are perplexing—clearly multiple and multidimensional, and situationally specific, difficult of generalization. But certainly much ethnic conflict is rooted in or fed by competition for resources. Though no purely materialist explanation can be...
2. The World Bank and Displacement: The Challenge of Heterogeneity
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International development agencies have become sensitive to potentially adverse social consequences of their projects. But mere recognition of potential problems ensures neither avoidance nor mitigation. Project-related population displacement is one such source of problems, including ethnic conflict in some...
3. USAID and Ethnic Conflict: An Epiphany?
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This chapter examines the approach of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to ethnic conflict—whether it addresses ethnic conflict in its policies, programs, or projects; why it is interested in ethnic conflict; and how it approaches ethnic conflict and ethnicity.¹ As an independent agency within the U.S. foreign policy establishment, USAID...
4. Foreign Aid and Ethnic Interests in Kenya
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Academics specializing in the design and implementation of foreign aid interventions have given little attention to ethnicity.� As a result, it should not be surprising that aid agency handbooks fail to be explicit about ethnic issues, for academic products have an important impact on their content. This neglect, however, does not mean that those involved...
5. Ethnic Cooperation in Sri Lanka: Through the Keyhole of a USAID Project
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It is unlikely that there is any necessary or fixed relationship between foreign assistance and ethnic conflict (or cooperation). However, this does not mean that there is no connection. External aid used in some ways can be seen to exacerbate or stir up ethnic tensions, indirectly if not directly, while aid used differently can have some moderating effects. The...
6. Making Ethnic Conflict: The Civil War in Sri Lanka
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Sri Lanka’s internal strife has been among the most enduring, lethal, and puzzling of current domestic conflicts. This outcome is puzzling because of the absence of sustained ethnic conflict prior to the late 1970s and the remarkable developmental record of Sri Lanka as a model for provision of “basic human needs” within the context of a well-institutionalized...
7. Foreign Assistance as Genocide: The Crisis in Russia, the IMF, and Interethnic Relations
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For a long time, Russia has been at the center of attention of a large section of the international development community. Huge sums have been poured into the maw of Russian reform. Politicians and of‹cials in Africa, Asia, and Latin America complain that their countries are being starved of assistance because the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are...
8. “Indian Market”: The Ethnic Face of Adjustment in Ecuador
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On February 5, 1999, Ecuador’s president Jamil Mahuad decreed the latest in almost two decades of austerity programs, seeking from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and Inter-American Development Bank $700 million in loans needed to pay the interest on Ecuador’s $15 billion foreign debt. This year’s program included cutoffs of...
9. Policy Dimensions: What Can Development Assistance Do?
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In most countries that receive development assistance—in Asia, Africa, and Latin America; in Eastern Europe and the successor republics of the former Soviet Union—ethnic pluralism has become an important (often the most salient) dimension of politics and the principal source of violent conflict. The previous chapters address whether this presents a special...
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Page Count: 272
Publication Year: 2001