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The Frontier of Loyalty

Political Exiles in the Age of the Nation-State

Yossi Shain

Publication Year: 2005

Paperback edition of the pathbreaking book on the role of exiles in international relations, with a new foreword (including material on the war in Iraq). "In a world increasingly shaped by transnational organizations and processes, this is a timely and welcome subject, and Yossi Shain provides an informative overview." --Rogers Brubaker, Harvard University, in The American Journal of Sociology "Engrossing." --International Affairs "Mr. Shain is at his best stitching together information that hitherto had not been systematically related to analytical themes. . . . A major contribution to understanding the patterns and complexities of the politics of those at home abroad." --International Migration Review "The Frontier of Loyalty is the first comprehensive and theoretically oriented study of exile politics; the types of exile activity; the relation to both the home and host governments; and the difficulties and ambiguities of exile politics, particularly the struggle for legitimacy as spokesman for the opposition at home and for recognition from the outside." --- Juan J. Linz, Yale University "An ingenious and sensitive analysis of political exiles as 'voice from without,' which contributes to our understanding of the transnational character of contemporary politics." --- Aristide R. Zolberg, New School for Social Research "Drawing upon a wide literature on contemporary political exiles, Yossi Shain presents a sophisticated, learned and sensible survey of their place in political life today. More important, his meditation on the role of exiles proves such essential political categories as legitimacy, national loyalty, and opposition in the modern state. One test of any work of scholarship is whether it enhances our understanding of concepts that we have previously taken for granted. By this measure, Shain's book passes with flying colors." --- Michael R. Marrus, University of Toronto

Published by: University of Michigan Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. vii-ix

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pp. xi-xii

This book originated as a doctoral dissertation at Yale University. Iwish to thank teachers, colleagues, and friends who supported my efforts from beginning to end. My greatest debt is to Juan Linz, who generously granted his time and shared his ideas from the moment ...

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Preface: The Frontiers of Loyalty: Do They Really Change?

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pp. xiii-xxxi

In December 1914, Tomasˇ Masaryk, the future first president of Czechoslovakia, departed Austria-Hungary for Switzerland, convinced that Czech self-determination under the Habsburgs’ rule was impossible. First from England and then from the United ...


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The Political Exile and the Evolution of National Loyalty

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pp. 1-6

This book provides a systematic overview of exile political activity in established twentieth-century nation-states, concentrating for purposes of theory on the activity of exiles who strive to overpower a native government without challenging the existence of the nationstate or its boundaries_ A study of the dimensions of exile political activity enriches our understanding...

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Who Is an Exile?

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pp. 7-12

The problem begins with definition. Who is an exile? While reviewing the existing literature on exiles, it occurred to me that their political activity has not received the theoretical attention it deserves in part because of fundamental problems of definition. I was therefore led to reexamine the existing...

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The Political Exile as a Political Activist

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pp. 13-17

The criteria that shape the definition of exiles as sociological deviants, psychological variants, or a special category in international law, make no reference to what exiles actually do abroad politically in an attempt to return to their home country. To a political scientist this may be the primary question, but the classification of exiles in accordance with their day-to-day activities...

Chapter One: Who Represents the Nation's Will?

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Loyalty and Disloyalty in the Nation-State

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pp. 18-23

The essence of politics in the nation-state is the conflict between groups who try to capture or maintain political power-that is, the authority to command. I describe manifestation of support for any claim to power within the national community as loyalt~" the struggle over political power as the process...

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Political Exiles: National Loyalists or Traitors?

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pp. 23-26

It is very difficult to maintain power by sheer coercion. Other means must be used to cultivate loyalty among the citizens. In the age of the nation-state where, as Ernest Gellner says, the notion prevails that the "political and...

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Chapter Two: Exile Organizations: Competing Claims to Represent the National Interest from Abroad

Exile groups, like all political groups, vary greatly in the structure of the organizations they establish to carryon their collective struggle. Some are informal, amorphous, and fragmented, without a hierarchy between leaders and followers and with constant reshaping of ideologiesj others have well-defined and highly bureaucratized structures. Differences in the structure...

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Governmental and Nongovernmental Claims

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pp. 27-30

Organizations that claim to represent the national constituency are either governmental, consisting chiefly of political parties and their variations of factions or coalitions. An intermediate, semi governmental form, combining both governmental and...

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The Role of Origin

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pp. 30-31

There is often a close connection between the form of exile organizations and their historical origins. Origin often determines both material resources and recruiting policies, especially during the initial period abroad. Significant differences may exist between exile organizations that grow from...

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The Validation of Claims to Power

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pp. 31-33

Many pre-exile organizations hold an unusual sometimes distorted vision of history and time. On the one hand, they maintain that the passage of time abroad is insignificant as a criterion for evaluating...

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The Hope of Return and International Recognition

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pp. 33-37

Decreases proportionately as the group stays outside its home nationj in an exile environment there is a constant danger of erosion of the hope of return. Removed from the immediate conditions that motivate their political struggle, and living in an indifferent environment, pre-exile groups frequently find their collective...

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Chapter Three: The Politics of Schism

The political world of exile is anything but united. It frequently resembles a lion's den. Indeed, the intensity of the inter- and intraexile conflicts often diverts energy from the attainment of the ultimate group goal, a return to the homeland. Fierce disputes arise among exile organizations about who exactly is the authentic representative of the national interest. Competing organizations offer opinions on their...

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Autonomy and Identity

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pp. 39-41

Compelled to contend with a new environment, exile organizations by their very nature operate under a great deal of uncertainty. The task of maintaining pre-exile symbols of unity or of generating new ones is particularly difficult and complex...

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Exile Coalitions

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pp. 41-43

Bringing political exiles together are a number of incentives: financial need, availability of military resources, policy promises, and the emotional satisfaction of solidarity. Exile unity can increase the credibility and prestige of the overall...

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Ideological Purity

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pp. 43-45

The failure to establish or to maintain political unity is often rationalized by exile leaders on ideological grounds. For ideological purity is often considered a key tactic in sustaining a leadership's purity...

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The Insider-Outsider Dilemma

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pp. 45-46

A major practical consideration dividing exile organizations along theoretical lines is the respective roles of the political exiles and the domestic opposition in the struggle against the home regime. Use of exile-motivated violence in overthrowing the home regime, as opposed to domestic forces...

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Foreign Intervention

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pp. 46-49

The insider-outsider debate among and within exile organizations often acquires ideological tints that perpetuate cleavages when the debate involves third-party intervention. Competing exile organizations heavily dependent upon different international benefactors may find themselves agitating against...

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Chapter Four: Political Exiles and the Diaspora

Faced with difficulties in mobilizing supporters in the home nation and obstacles in gaining international recognition, political exiles often turn to their fellow nationals abroad-their national diasporaas their organization's most valuable source of legitimacy. Public acknowledgment from this...

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National Diaspora

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pp. 51-56

In political terms, a national diaspora can be understood as a people with a common national origin who regard themselves, or are regarded by others, as members...

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The Incentives for Mobilization

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pp. 56-62

The incentives manipulated by exile groups to mobilize members of their diaspora are largely determined by the specific acts the exiles want their prospective followers to perform. Exile groups may ask members of their diaspora...

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The Case of the Russian Diaspora

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pp. 62-70

The stories of the Russian exiles and the Spanish Republicans reflect the difficulties of large, diverse, and widely dispersed diasporas in forming united political fronts in the face of strong home regimes and the constraints posed intern...

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The Case of the Spanish Republicans

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pp. 70-76

Whether the Allied governments used the factional tendencies among the exiled Spanish Republicans as an excuse to avoid any commitment to aggressive action against Franco, or to deny the Republican government- in-exile official recognition...

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Chapter Five: Political Exiles and the Domestic Opposition

For many exile groups, survival requires the formation or preservation of an organizational skeleton not only abroad but inside the home nation as well. Most exile groups maintain that the breakdown of the home regime can be accomplished only from within the home country; they see domestic opposition as the primary force for this mission, and their own activities...

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Pre-exile Organizations and Loyalty at Home

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pp. 78-79

The ability of exile organizations to perpetuate loyalties at home is greatly determined by the state of the organization before and after departure from the home country. Groups that before exile already had strong ideological bonds, a cellular organizational structure, cohesive leadership, and a developed...

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The Internal-External Legitimacy Nexus

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pp. 79-83

Political exiles' ability to maintain a foothold at home enhances their prestige among their prospective supporters abroad, both national and foreign. Political exiles without an active organization at home (and thus forced to concentrate mobilizing efforts exclusively in the international arena) are likely to encounter severe problems in mustering outside support...

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Exiles and Hegemonic Home Regimes

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pp. 83-86

Leaders who molded their organizational supremacy through democratic procedures at home have the problem of how to legitimize their decisions and authority from abroad. In the absence of democratic mechanisms for sustaining their pre-exile authority and symbols, the exiles' claims for legal representation...

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Mixed Regime or Pluralistic Hegemony

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pp. 86-88

Relations between political exiles and the internal resistance vary significantly with the nature of the home regime, in particular the tolerance afforded to domestic opposition. Under a hegemony any form of organized opposition is prohibited and the home regime enforces a policy of closed borders...

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Collaboration with the Opposition or Infiltration

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pp. 88-91

The conflicting desire either to maintain a revolutionary identity on the one hand, or to take advantage of the existing regime's tolerance on the other, may produce a wide spectrum of political responses. At one extreme~ exiles may adopt the "honest" approach, avoiding any collaboration with forces inside the country that accept the regime's definition of permissible...

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Exile-Insider Relations over Time

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pp. 92-94

As in other political encounters, the complexity of exile-insider relationships is compounded by time. Indeed, a case-by-case analysis of their relative strengths in relation to the home regime must take into account social and political...

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Italian Exiles Who Failed to Reach the Promised Land

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pp. 94-97

Two cases of Italian exile activity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries demonstrate the tenuous and fragile nature of the relationship between exiles and an internal opposition. The home regime's ability to suppress internal dissent or to create alternative routes for its expression has important consequences...

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Pragmatism in Exile Politics

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pp. 97-109

In November 1926 Mussolini imposed his dictatorship on Italy. He forbade political opposition, forcing many of his adversaries, leaders of socialist parties especiall~ to flee abroad. These leaders established the Concentrazione antifascista...

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Chapter Six: Recognition in the International Community

Many exile organizations ascribe vital importance to foreign support for their struggle, and strive to make their case international. They endeavor to generate and cultivate international enmity toward the home regime and to earn recognition for themselves at that regime's expense, so as to undermine...

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Patterns of International Recognition

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pp. 110-109

Two broadly distinguishable segments within the international community periodically extend their support to exile organizations: 1. Governments, including intergovernmental organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the Organization of American States (OAS), or the Organization of African Unity (OAU)...

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pp. 113-115

Many exile organizations ascribe vital importance to foreign support for their struggle, and strive to make their case international. They endeavor to generate and cultivate international enmity toward the home regime and to earn recognition for themselves at that regime's expense, so as to undermine...

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National Exile Committees

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pp. 116-117

Until the end of World War II, exile organizations making governmental claims without reference to previous legal status were not able to obtain full diplomatic recognition as a sovereign authority. At best they could hope to attain the "non-descript status of a National Committee."...

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Rationales for Support by Other Nations

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pp. 118-119

International patrons are led to support political exiles by two general and often correlated motivations: ideological and political. Ideological sympathy and humanitarian concerns are primary motivations behind civil society's support, whereas...

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Relations with the Host State

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pp. 119-124

The critical role in shaping the relations between exile groups and the international community is reserved to the host government not to the exiles themselves...

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Exile Diplomacy: the Politics of Image

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pp. 124-127

Since governments operate to satisfy their own political objectives, exiles attempt to convince those governments whose support they perceive as critical that their interests...

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International Organizations and the Global Mythology

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pp. 127-129

Many exile organizations try to stir world public opinion and obtain international assistance by latching onto issues that the global international community finds symbolically resonant. These issues are usually part of a storehouse...

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Chapter Seven: My Country Right or Wrong: The Exile War Trap

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pp. 130-134

The continuous conflict between political exiles and their home regime on the question of national loyalty and representation reaches its extreme when the exiles' native land becomes involved in a war with another country. In wartime the exiles' perpetual dilemma intensifies: to what extent...

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The Government's Defeat Is the Nation's Victory

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pp. 134-138

The idea that the government's defeat is the nation's victory was introduced Lenin during the Russo-Japanese conflict. While millions of Russian citizens were called by the czarist government in February 1904 to fight and perhaps to die in the Far East, Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks...

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In Defense of a Home People, Not a Home Regime

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pp. 139-144

The ways in which the exiled leaders of the German Social Democratic Party (SPDj dealt with the question of national loyalty during World War II cogently exemplifies the complexity of the "exile war trap." From the first days of the war, shortly after Germany invaded Poland, until the final defeat...

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Chapter Eight: Counterexile Strategies by the Home Regime

The ability of political exiles to engender loyalty and recognition for their cause is significantly affected by a home regime's countercampaigns against them. Regimes use their monopoly over the legal use of violence and manipulate...

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Denationalization and Statelessness

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pp. 147-153

The home regime may impair exiles' operational activities and undermine their claim to political legitimacy by branding them as disloyal and in effect no longer citizens. In the modern concept of citizenship, which took hold particularly after the American and French revolutions, citizenship...

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Divisions and Splinters within Exile Organizations

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pp. 153-155

Ideological, tactical, and personal divisions within the exile organizations often debilitate and exhaust the political exiles' revolutionary energy. Such divisions undermine the exiles' ability to generate loyalty and international recognition for their cause, and weaken their claim to represent the authentic...

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Diplomatic Pressures on the Host Government

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pp. 155-157

Home regimes that seek to eliminate their opposition abroad have been perennially aware of the importance of host governments in determining the exiles' operational effectiveness. They often try to manipulate their diplomatic...

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Assassinations and Kidnappings of Key Leaders

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pp. 157-160

In this century, assassination and kidnapping of key leaders, ideologues, and front-line activists in exile have gradually been adopted by despotic regimes as a key...

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Likelihood of the Use of Antiexile Measures

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pp. 161-162

In his study "Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes," Juan Linz refrains from including terror as a crucial variable in distinguishing between these two types of regime. He argues that, "while terror acquired a unique importance...


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The Moving Frontier of National Loyalty

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pp. 163-168

I have concentrated, for purposes of theor~ on the activities of exile groups that try to gain power in the state at the expense of their native regime. Patterns of exile political behavior have also been identified and illustrated studying exile groups seeking "self-determination" and "decolonization...


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pp. 169-200


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pp. 201-214

E-ISBN-13: 9780472026128
E-ISBN-10: 0472026127
Print-ISBN-13: 9780472030422
Print-ISBN-10: 0472030426

Page Count: 248
Publication Year: 2005