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After Independence

Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States

Lowell W. Barrington, Ed.

Publication Year: 2006

The majority of the existing work on nationalism has centered on its role in the creation of new states. After Independence breaks new ground by examining the changes to nationalism after independence in seven new states. This innovative volume challenges scholars and specialists to rethink conventional views of ethnic and civic nationalism and the division between primordial and constructivist understandings of national identity. "Where do nationalists go once they get what they want? We know rather little about how nationalist movements transform themselves into the governments of new states, or how they can become opponents of new regimes that, in their view, have not taken the self-determination drive far enough. This stellar collection contributes not only to comparative theorizing on nationalist movements, but also deepens our understanding of the contentious politics of nationalism's ultimate product--new countries." --Charles King, Chair of the Faculty and Ion Ratiu Associate Professor, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service "This well-integrated volume analyzes two important variants of nationalism-postcolonial and postcommunist-in a sober, lucid way and will benefit students and scholars alike." --Zvi Gitelman, University of Michigan Lowell W. Barrington is Associate Professor of Political Science, Marquette University.

Published by: University of Michigan Press

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface & Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-x

An independent state is often thought of as the ultimate goal of nationalists. As a result, much of the existing work on nationalism has centered on its role in the creation of new states. While acknowledging the importance of that aspect of nationalism, this volume instead seeks answers to two less obvious questions: ...

I . Introduction

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1 Nationalism & Independence

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pp. 3-30

Nationalism was arguably the most powerful force in international politics in the twentieth century.1 Its ideas revolutionized international politics, affecting everything from trade to the number of states in the international system itself. It aided in the collapse of the central, eastern, and southeastern European empires; ...

II. Postcolonial Nationalism

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2. Nationalism in Postcolonial States

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pp. 33-44

In most countries that experienced some form of direct colonial rule, nationalism emerged as a political and intellectual movement embraced by a broad spectrum of social elites. Nationalist leaders of varying backgrounds shared a common interest in extricating the nation from colonial rule and in establishing an independent ...

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3. From Malay Nationalism to a Malaysian Nation?

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pp. 45-70

The Federation of Malaya gained its independence in 1957. Singapore and the Borneo states of Sabah and Sarawak joined with Malaya in 1963 to make the new country of Malaysia.1 But the creation of an enlarged Malaysian federation never diluted Malay nationalism or confused the Malays as to “who belongs to the nation.” ...

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4. Rwanda: Tragic Land of Dual Nationalisms

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pp. 71-106

Since the hour of its independence, Rwanda has proven to be a land of horror and fascination. The birth of the independent republic was accompanied by a terrible episode of communal violence, and the Rwandan people have known oppression, fear, and genocide during the postcolonial period. Indeed, the 1994 genocide in Rwanda ...

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5. From Irredentism to Secession: The Decline of Pan-Somali Nationalism

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pp. 107-138

The fact that Somalia remains synonymous with “ethnic chaos” and “state collapse” makes it a splendid case study for contemporary theorists of African nationalism1—not least of all due to the simple reality that Somalia was one of the brightest stars of the galaxy of studies on Africa nationalism at the beginning of the ...

III. Postcommunist Nationalism

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6. The Post-Soviet Nations after Independence

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pp. 141-161

In his introduction to this volume, Lowell Barrington details potential fault lines within nationalist movements, grouped along issues of territory and membership. Nationalists may claim territory of neighboring states based on historical ties or former ownership, while ethnic minorities within the new state may ...

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7. Nationalism in Post-Soviet Lithuania: New Approaches for the Nation of "Innocent Sufferers"

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pp. 162-186

Most scholars argue that, in contrast to many of the states of the former Soviet Union, Lithuania has had few difficulties with its national minorities.1 Much of this owes to Lithuanians constituting over 80 percent of the population, while the two largest national minorities comprise approximately 8 percent (Russians) ...

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8. Kravchuk to the Orange Revolution: The Victory of Civic Nationalism in Post-Soviet Ukraine

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pp. 187-224

Ukraine’s 2004 presidential election and Orange Revolution was facilitated by the role of civic nationalism. The inability to mobilize civic nationalism in sufficient quantity in 1991–92 permitted the election of sovereign Communist Leonid Kravchuk and later centrist Leonid Kuchma. The growth of a civic nationalist ...

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9. Post-Soviet Armenia: Nationalism & Its (Dis)contents

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pp. 225-247

The nationalist fervor that engulfed Soviet Armenia in early 1988 was one of the major flash points that led to the eventual collapse of the USSR. The resulting ethnic conflict over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh (Lernayin Gharabagh or Artsakh in Armenian) evolved into a major undeclared war between Armenia and Azerbaijan. ...

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10. Georgia: Nationalism from under the Rubble

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pp. 248-276

What happens to nationalism after it has attained its putative aim: a self-governing territory under the nation’s control? A glance at the ex-USSR suggests there is no pattern. The Soviet system—standardizing, homogenizing, and a powerful legacy for all the nations that were part of it—has been an important but unpredictable ...

IV. Conclusion

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11. Nationalism, Nation Making, & the Postcolonial States of Asia, Africa, & Eurasia

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pp. 279-296

I have benefited enormously from Lowell Barrington’s clarifying essays on ethnicity and nationalism. His distinction insisting on territoriality for the nation but not for ethnicity is very useful. At the same time, in our many discussions, I have argued that his definition of the nation remains, for my money, too objectivist. ...

Contributors

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pp. 297-300

Index

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pp. 301-306


E-ISBN-13: 9780472025084
E-ISBN-10: 0472025082
Print-ISBN-13: 9780472068982
Print-ISBN-10: 0472068989

Page Count: 320
Publication Year: 2006

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Newly independent states -- Politics and government.
  • Postcolonialism -- Case studies.
  • Post-communism -- Case studies.
  • Nationalism -- Case studies.
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