International Development and the New Politics of Inclusion
Publication Year: 2003
Published by: University of Michigan Press
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Encounters between scholars and policymakers do not always have happy outcomes. This book is the product of an encounter that--for a series of reasons related to personalities, professional positions, and historical timing (notably, the end of a long period of ascent of neoliberal ideas)--was unusually fruitful. The book began to take shape during two...
1. Introduction: From Polycentrism to the Polity
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The new politics of inclusion is the progeny of disquiet. Two decades of marketizing reform have succeeded in disassembling developmental states--their bases of legitimacy, the political coalitions that sustained them, and of course many of their concrete manifestations (from parastatal companies to interventionist economic policies and universal social...
2. Political Capabilities over the Long Run
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This chapter is a preliminary attempt to add to the political understanding of pro-poor policy-making in new democracies. We adopt the view that pro-poor policies are about enhancing personal capabilities, self-confidence, the capacity for community organization, and recognition of dignity, as well as about income generation and basic needs...
3. Beyond the Political Impossibility Theorem of Agrarian Reform
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It is commonly said that the rural poor have been excluded by dominant paths of development. More accurately, the terms of inclusion have been adverse; when states and the elites that run them have needed labor, taxes, or soldiers, the poor were included. That agrarian reforms have periodically altered the terms of inclusion for the rural poor in substantial ways...
4. Coalition Building from Below
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In low- and middle-income democracies, social groups loosely classified as poor are typically in the majority, but their political participation seldom influences national policy. There are many explanations for this. Some are familiar: the malfunctioning of democratic institutions in these countries, the class bases of liberal (bourgeois) democracy itself, and...
5. Grounds for Alliance?: Overlapping Interests of Poor and Not So Poor
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Peter Houtzager's introduction to this volume advocates a polity-based approach to the politics of inclusion. An important component of that approach is the complex interaction between the state and public policy, on the one hand, and the evolving capability of groups in society to develop their own identity, organize, and make political alliances. This...
6. The Boundaries of Antipoverty Policy: Economic Ideas, Political Coalitions, and the Structure of Social Provision in Chile and Mexico
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In an era in which international economic integration is accelerating and "market forces" are seen as the inevitable if not the ideal arbiters of distribution, many scholars have highlighted the increasing costs even to wealthy states of attempting to pursue expansionist policies (e.g., Williamson 1994; Garrett 1996). But others have suggested that there...
7. Polity Qualities: How Governance Affects Poverty
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This chapter employs some basic statistical analysis to address a question that has not been asked before. The question sounds complex and jargonistic: what explains the different efficiencies with which national political economies convert national material resources into mass welfare (i.e., human development)? It is actually a way of throwing new light on...
8. Do Political Regimes Matter?: Poverty Reduction and Regime Differences Across India
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India constitutes something of a laboratory for the study of political factors that influence the development and implementation of pro-poor policies. Its major states have different political histories and contemporary patterns of politics, yet, contained as they are within the framework of a federal democracy, they also have important features in common.
9. Does Decentralization Contribute to Poverty Reduction?: Surveying the Evidence
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The governments of developing countries have been decentralizing. Since the mid-1980s, decentralization reforms have been introduced in states ruled by virtually all varieties of national political regimes, from military dictatorships, authoritarian presidencies, and monarchies through single-party or dominant-party regimes to multiparty competi- tive democracies.
10. Arguing the Politics of Inclusion
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What are the prospects for inclusionary development, in the sense that Peter Houtzager uses the term in chapter 1? By 2015, in how many countries will poor people be receiving an enhanced share of the material fruits of economic growth? And how many of these improvements in income distribution will be sustainable because they reflect some embedding into...
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Page Count: 312
Illustrations: 18 tables
Publication Year: 2003