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Changing Paths

International Development and the New Politics of Inclusion

Peter P. Houtzager and Mick Moore, Editors

Publication Year: 2003

After two decades of marketizing, an array of national and international actors have become concerned with growing global inequality, the failure to reduce the numbers of very poor people in the world, and a perceived global backlash against international economic institutions. This new concern with poverty reduction and the political participation of excluded groups has set the stage for a new politics of inclusion within nations and in the international arena. The essays in this volume explore what forms the new politics of inclusion can take in low- and middle-income countries. The contributors favor a polity-centered approach that focuses on the political capacities of social and state actors to negotiate large-scale collective solutions and that highlights various possible strategies to lift large numbers of people out of poverty and political subordination. The contributors suggest there is little basis for the radical polycentrism that colors so much contemporary development thought. They focus on how the political capabilities of different societal and state actors develop over time and how their development is influenced by state action and a variety of institutional and other factors. The final chapter draws insightful conclusions about the political limitations and opportunities presented by current international discourse on poverty. Peter P. Houtzager is a Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. He has been a visiting scholar at the Center for Latin American Studies, University of California, Berkeley, visiting lecturer at Stanford University, and lecturer at St. Mary's College. A political scientist with broad training in comparative politics and historical-institutional analysis, he has written extensively on the institutional roots of collective action. Mick Moore is a Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, as well as Director of the Centre for the Future State. He has been a visiting professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His professional interests include political and institutional aspects of poverty reduction and of economic policy and performance, the politics and administration of development, and good government.

Published by: University of Michigan Press

Title Page

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pp. iii-

Copyright

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pp. iv-

Contents

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pp. v-vi

Tables

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Encounters between scholars and policymakers do not always have happy outcomes. This book is the product of an encounter that--for a series of reasons related to personalities, professional positions, and historical timing (notably, the end of a long period of ascent of neoliberal ideas)--was unusually fruitful. The book began to take shape during two...

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1. Introduction: From Polycentrism to the Polity

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pp. 1-31

The new politics of inclusion is the progeny of disquiet. Two decades of marketizing reform have succeeded in disassembling developmental states--their bases of legitimacy, the political coalitions that sustained them, and of course many of their concrete manifestations (from parastatal companies to interventionist economic policies and universal social...

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2. Political Capabilities over the Long Run

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pp. 32-57

This chapter is a preliminary attempt to add to the political understanding of pro-poor policy-making in new democracies. We adopt the view that pro-poor policies are about enhancing personal capabilities, self-confidence, the capacity for community organization, and recognition of dignity, as well as about income generation and basic needs...

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3. Beyond the Political Impossibility Theorem of Agrarian Reform

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pp. 58-87

It is commonly said that the rural poor have been excluded by dominant paths of development. More accurately, the terms of inclusion have been adverse; when states and the elites that run them have needed labor, taxes, or soldiers, the poor were included. That agrarian reforms have periodically altered the terms of inclusion for the rural poor in substantial ways...

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4. Coalition Building from Below

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pp. 88-118

In low- and middle-income democracies, social groups loosely classified as poor are typically in the majority, but their political participation seldom influences national policy. There are many explanations for this. Some are familiar: the malfunctioning of democratic institutions in these countries, the class bases of liberal (bourgeois) democracy itself, and...

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5. Grounds for Alliance?: Overlapping Interests of Poor and Not So Poor

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pp. 119-138

Peter Houtzager's introduction to this volume advocates a polity-based approach to the politics of inclusion. An important component of that approach is the complex interaction between the state and public policy, on the one hand, and the evolving capability of groups in society to develop their own identity, organize, and make political alliances. This...

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6. The Boundaries of Antipoverty Policy: Economic Ideas, Political Coalitions, and the Structure of Social Provision in Chile and Mexico

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pp. 139-166

In an era in which international economic integration is accelerating and "market forces" are seen as the inevitable if not the ideal arbiters of distribution, many scholars have highlighted the increasing costs even to wealthy states of attempting to pursue expansionist policies (e.g., Williamson 1994; Garrett 1996). But others have suggested that there...

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7. Polity Qualities: How Governance Affects Poverty

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pp. 167-203

This chapter employs some basic statistical analysis to address a question that has not been asked before. The question sounds complex and jargonistic: what explains the different efficiencies with which national political economies convert national material resources into mass welfare (i.e., human development)? It is actually a way of throwing new light on...

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8. Do Political Regimes Matter?: Poverty Reduction and Regime Differences Across India

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pp. 204-232

India constitutes something of a laboratory for the study of political factors that influence the development and implementation of pro-poor policies. Its major states have different political histories and contemporary patterns of politics, yet, contained as they are within the framework of a federal democracy, they also have important features in common.

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9. Does Decentralization Contribute to Poverty Reduction?: Surveying the Evidence

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pp. 233-259

The governments of developing countries have been decentralizing. Since the mid-1980s, decentralization reforms have been introduced in states ruled by virtually all varieties of national political regimes, from military dictatorships, authoritarian presidencies, and monarchies through single-party or dominant-party regimes to multiparty competi- tive democracies.

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10. Arguing the Politics of Inclusion

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pp. 260-284

What are the prospects for inclusionary development, in the sense that Peter Houtzager uses the term in chapter 1? By 2015, in how many countries will poor people be receiving an enhanced share of the material fruits of economic growth? And how many of these improvements in income distribution will be sustainable because they reflect some embedding into...

Contributors

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pp. 285-287

Subject Index

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pp. 289-296

Author Index

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pp. 297-300


E-ISBN-13: 9780472024810
E-ISBN-10: 0472024817
Print-ISBN-13: 9780472030972
Print-ISBN-10: 0472030973

Page Count: 312
Illustrations: 18 tables
Publication Year: 2003