Handbook of War Studies III
The Intrastate Dimension
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: University of Michigan Press
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Introduction: Interstate and Civil Strife
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Not too long a time has passed since publication of the Handbook of War Studies II, yet much has happened in that period. The prevalence of civil war, the mass killing, even genocide, of noncombatants, and other forms of brutality not typically associated with interstate war have increasingly occupied the attention of researchers. At the same time, interstate war, ...
Part I. Perspectives on Interstate and Civil Strife
War and Rationality
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Any appraisal of the state of knowledge about conflct and war is both a daunting task and a challenging one. Much progress is being made through the design and testing of rational actor models that investigate the state as a unitary actor, and through political economy models that look within states at citizen and leadership interests and institutionally ...
Emotions and War: An Evolutionary Model of Motivation
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In Jack Levy’s excellent chapter on prospect theory in the Handbook of War Studies II (Midlarsky 2000a), he discusses the implications of loss aversion and framing effects for foreign policy decision making and bargaining. In so doing, he writes that the “process of framing undoubtedly involves cognitive and affective variables and this is inherently ‘psycho- ...
Part II. The Onset and Termination of Civil Wars
The Evolution of Theory on Civil War and Revolution
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The last half of the twentieth century was characterized by some as an age of revolutions (Goodwin 2001a; see also Snyder 1999), and rightly so. Well over 100 major civil wars occurred during this period, resulting in tens of millions of casualties among both civilians and combatants (see Lacina and Gleditsch 2005). The destructive effects of civil wars—on human be- ...
Internal Wars over the State: Rational Choice Institutionalism and Contentious Politics
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Alexis de Tocqueville’s The Old Régime and the French Revolution is the classic study of state building and internal war. Over the centuries, Tocqueville shows, French monarchs centralized institutions (administrative structure, feudal apparatus, war-making machine, and ecclesiastical governance) that eventually propelled all of French civil society (clergy, no- ...
Democracy and Civil War
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In this chapter, we investigate the question of democratic civil peace—that is, democratic peace at the intrastate level. We use interchangeably the terms civil war and intrastate violence for events where organized violence is used for political goals, although conventionally the term war is often reserved for conflicts where the annual number of battle deaths ex- ...
Civil War Outcomes
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At one level it seems impossible that civil wars can end. The strongest theoretical argument that civil wars are different from other forms of political violence is that the stakes are different. In interstate wars the victor is likely to eventually go away, especially because modern nationalism and sectarianism make the cost of continued occupation very high, as seen in ...
Part III. Ethnic Conflict, International Relations, and Genocide
The Origins of Ethnic Wars: A Historical and Critical Account
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The volume of research on ethnic wars has grown tremendously in the last decade.1 While there are a number of useful ways to summarize and compare major contributions to this important field of inquiry, in this chapter I employ a historical review—an intellectual history of inquiry into the causes, dynamics, and consequences of ethnic war as a category ...
The International Relations of Ethnic Conflict
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Long a focus of scholarly interest in the fields of history, sociology and anthropology, ethnic conflict1 has only recently gained the sustained attention of international relations scholars as a phenomenon with major implications for world politics. In political science, the study of ethnic conflict was generally believed to be the province of regional scholars ...
Genocide Studies: Large N, Small N, and Policy Specificity
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With the onset of the Rwandan genocide in 1994 and the more recent genocidal activities in Darfur, the world has once again confronted the unthinkable—the attempted or actual annihilation of a distinct group of people. The exemplar of twentieth-century genocides, the Holocaust, was presumably so horriffic as never to be repeated. Yet the systematic mass ...
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Page Count: 392
Illustrations: 8 Figures, 8 Tables, 1 Appendix
Publication Year: 2009