The Eastern Question Reconsidered
Publication Year: 2014
Published by: University of Wisconsin Press
Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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The Eastern Question touched the lives of millions of people and dominated international relations between Europe, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for more than a century. The legacy of the Eastern Question remains etched in the landscape from the Balkans to the Caucasus and continues to influence people living in these regions today. In recent...
List of Abbreviations
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Introduction: The Eastern Question Reconsidered
Lucien J. Frary, Mara Kozelsky
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As early as 1736, a treatise by Cardinal Alberoni of Spain, translated into English and published in London, proposed a joint effort among the European powers to conquer and divide the Ottoman Empire. The “perfidious and vast Empire of Turkey,” he wrote, has been “in a languishing State for more than a Century.” Alberoni attributed the decline...
The Russian Protectorate in the Danubian Principalities: Legacies of the Eastern Question in Contemporary Russian-Romanian Relations
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In 1890, the soon-to-be leader of the Romanian Liberal Party, Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza, published a booklet titled Europa, Rusia şi România, in which he presented his country as the avant-garde force of European civilization in the upcoming struggle with the mass of Slavic peoples mobilizing against Europe under the Russian scepter.1 Citing different...
“Dreadful Scenes of Carnage on Both Sides”: The Strangford Files and the Eastern Crisis of 1821–1822
Theophilus C. Prousis
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Lord Strangford, an experienced diplomatic official with previous postings to Portugal, Brazil, and Sweden, served as Britain’s ambassador to the Sublime Porte from 1821 to 1824, an especially turbulent time in Ottoman-European encounters. As the Ottoman Empire coped with a series of challenges, Strangford sent hundreds of reports to the London...
Slaves of the Sultan: Russian Ransoming of Christian Captives during the Greek Revolution, 1821–1830
Lucien J. Frary
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The people of Russian lands were involved in the Crimean Tatar and Ottoman slave trade from at least the second half of the fifteenth century.1 By the sixteenth century, Crimean Tatars, Nogais, Kalmyks, and Kazakhs raided Russian territories annually, with the goal of enslaving as many Russians as they could take away. Disputes over ransom...
Russia’s Quest for the Holy Grail: Relics, Liturgics, and Great-Power Politics in the Ottoman Empire
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A development common to all the social sciences since the end of the Cold War has been a renewed appreciation for the social and political power of religion.1 In keeping with this trend, a growing number of historians have self-consciously sought (in the words of Philip Gorski) “to bring religion back in” to the writing of modern political and social...
The Crimean War and the Tatar Exodus
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In the years following the Crimean War (1853–56), nearly two-hundred thousand Crimean Tatars fled their native peninsula en masse to resettle in the Ottoman Empire. They abandoned their homes and livestock; sold their property at devastatingly low prices; gave up their poddanstvo, or subjecthood in the Russian Empire; and bid farewell to the country...
Russia, Mount Athos, and the Eastern Question, 1878–1914
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Beginning in the seventeenth century, Russia turned its political aspirations toward the Black Sea and the Straits of the Bosporus and Dardanelles. The desire for a free exit to the Mediterranean for its trade, and from the eighteenth century onward a safeguard for its southern frontier, generated a more assertive Russian foreign policy in its southwestern...
“Forty Years of Black Days”? The Russian Administration of Kars, Ardahan, and Batum, 1878–1918
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This chapter examines the basic tenets of the Russian “Military-Customary Administration” (Voenno-narodnoe upravlenie) and the Russian resettlement (colonization) policy in Kars, Ardahan, and Batum from the Russian annexation in 1878 until the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918.1 While there is a sizable literature on the Russian administration in...
The Idea of an Eastern Federation: An Alternative to the Destruction of the Ottoman Empire
John A. Mazis
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It is clear today, with the benefit of hindsight, that the idea of an Eastern federation, the volunteer union based on equality of the various peoples of the Balkans and Anatolia, was doomed from the start. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when this idea emerged, were characterized by rising nationalism and attempts, or rather hopes, of...
Squabbling over the Spoils: Late Imperial Russia’s Rivalry with France in the Near East
Ronald P. Bobroff
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The Franco-Russian Alliance, from its beginnings in 1891 through its demise with the Russian Revolution in 1917, is best remembered for the way France and Russia cooperated primarily to resist what was perceived as a growing threat from Germany. Indeed, this alliance formed one side of a diarchy of alliances that engendered the tensions facilitating...
The Eastern Question in Turkish Republican Textbooks: Settling Old Scores with the European and the Ottoman “Other”
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On a cold January day in 1923 in Eskişehir, a small Anatolian town near Ankara, Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) gave a lengthy speech to the officials and notables who had gathered at the governor’s office to hear him. During the address, which touched upon many pressing matters, Mustafa Kemal discussed the Lausanne Conference (1922–23), which was still in...
Epilogue: Legacies of the Eastern Question
Lucien J. Frary, Mara Kozelsky
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Macedonia Square, the central meeting place in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, is part of an ambitious “antiquization” project financed by the government that reflects the bustling capital as a historical crossroads. Synthesizing more than two millennia of history, the square’s centerpiece features an enormous white marble fountain with a...
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Candan Badem (PhD, Sabancı University, İstanbul, 2007) is an assistant professor in the Department of History, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey. He is the author of The Ottoman Crimean War (Brill, 2010) and Çarlık Rusyası Yönetiminde Kars Vilayeti (Birzamanlar, 2010). Currently, he is continuing research on the Russian administration of the Kars and Batum provinces and on World...
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Page Count: 320
Publication Year: 2014