Couched in Death
Klinai and Identity in Anatolia and Beyond
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Wisconsin Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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List of Illustrations
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This book represents more than ten years of research and refl ects the support of many col-leagues, mentors, friends, and students. It began as a PhD dissertation at Berkeley, under the supervision of Crawford H. Greenewalt Jr., and since then has been expanded in some ways and trimmed in others, incorporating new research and entertaining new theories concern-ing the primary material under study, the funerary klinai of Anatolia. The present work goes ...
Abbreviations and Guidelines for Use
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Abbreviations for journals and standard scholarly works cited in the notes, appendices, and bibliography follow the guidelines of the American Journal of Archaeology or the German Archaeological Institute. Abbreviations for ancient authors and works follow those listed in the Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edition (1996). ...
Introduction: Approaches to Klinai and the Cultures of Anatolia
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The image of a person relaxing on a banquet couch endured as a funerary icon in the ancient Medi-terranean from the Archaic Period through Late Antiquity. Whether on sarcophagus lids or grave reliefs or in tomb paintings, such images are easily called to mind and understood as expressions of the deceased’s identity or status and his or her membership in the leisure- loving elite and, perhaps, in an eternal aft erlife banquet (or aspirations thereto). Less well known is the three- dimensional ...
Chapter 1. Archaic and Classical Greek Klinai: Realities and Representations
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The couch in antiquity served many more functions, both real and symbolic, than the sofa nor-mally does today: not only relaxation, but also dining, drinking, having sex, and sleeping, as well as serving as a deathbed, bier, and permanent resting place in the grave. These are the functions, at least, that we can infer from scenes on Greek vases; there may have been many more. As a fi xture of the Greek symposion, the kline has even been described as “an instrument for the education ...
Chapter 2. Funerary Klinai in Anatolia
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The Kerameikos burials discussed in Chapter 1 are among the earliest attestations of klinai used as burial receptacles, but they are exceptional in Greece, and their associated fi nds point strikingly toward a West Anatolian cultural affi liation. In fact, it is in western Anatolia that the practice of burying the dead on a kline is best attested in the Archaic and Classical periods. This chapter pres-ents the rich and varied evidence for this burial tradition in sixth- and fi ft h- century Anatolia and ...
Chapter 3. Origins of the Kline-Tomb
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Where did the kline- tomb concept originate? It has sometimes been assumed that the custom of burying the dead on a kline was imported to Anatolia from Persia aft er Cyrus the Great’s conquest of Lydia ca. 545.1 Dusinberre has suggested that this burial type amended a preexisting concept of funerary banqueting in Lydia to refl ect new dining habits (i.e., reclining) and to elevate the corpse above the ground, in accordance with the Zoroastrian beliefs of resident Persian nobility, and that it ...
Chapter 4. Banqueting and Identity in Achaemenid Anatolia
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Despite the evidence presented above for the Anatolian roots of the kline- tomb concept and the “Lydian- ness” of funerary klinai, the fact remains that most securely dated instances of this burial type in Anatolia come from the Persian period or later. A remarkable kline- tomb excavated in 2010 at Daskyleion, one of the Achaemenid satrapal capitals of western Anatolia (see Fig. 1), off ers vivid testimony, in the form of klinai stained with the remnants of rich purple cloths, to the associa-...
Chapter 5. Conclusions: Legacies and Meanings
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The earliest roots of the custom of kline- burial, the preceding chapters show, seem to lie in Anatolia in the late seventh or early sixth century BCE, when existing traditions of bed- burial and funerary banqueting coalesced in the use of multifunctional sympotic furniture as a burial receptacle. The majority of known kline- burials from the sixth and fi ft h centuries come from Lydia, Phrygia, and other areas of Anatolia. The few early examples from outside Anatolia may refl ect the popularity ...
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The discovery of a remarkably well- preserved kline- tomb near Daskyleion in 2012 was reported by Kaan İren, director of the Daskyleion excavations, at the 35th International Symposium of Ex-cavations, Surveys, and Archaeometry in Muğla, Τurkey, on 30 May 2013, aft er the completion of this manuscript. The chamber of the Kocaresul Tumulus contains three intact stone couches in a Π- shaped arrangement, each decorated with carved and painted ornament. The side klinai have ...
Appendix A: Catalogue of Anatolian Tombs with Funerary Beds or Couches, ca. 600–400 BCE
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Appendix B: List of Vases Cited in the Text
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Wisconsin Studies in Classics
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Myth, Ethos, and Actuality: Of_f_i cial Art in Fift h Century B.C. Devins, Dieux et Démons: Regards sur la religion de l’Etrurie Satire and the Threat of Speech: Horace’s “Satires,” Book 1Responses to Oliver Stone’s “Alexander”: Film, History, and Cicero’s “Ad Familiares” and Seneca’s “Moral Epistles”...
Page Count: 517
Illustrations: 162 b/w illus., 12 color illus., 4 maps, 2 tables
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Wisconsin Studies in Classics
Series Editor Byline: John Smith, Will Wordsworth