Spain's Retreat, Europe's Eclipse, America's Decline
Publication Year: 2012
Published by: University of Wisconsin Press
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Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright, Dedication
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Sensing the current world order at the cusp of major change, a global networkof ïïï historians gathered from four continents for an intense dialogue at a suc-cession of conferences in Madison (ï ïïï), Sydney (ï ïïï), Manila (ï ïïï), andBarcelona (ï ïïï). The purpose of these meetings was to gain a comparative per-spective on the subject of modern imperial transitions, which would have been...
Part 1. Introduction
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Destruction (detail), ïïïï, the fourth painting in Thomas Coleâs five-part series titled TheCourse of Empire. (Collection of the New York Historical Society)...
Fatal Florescence: Europe’s Decolonization and America’s Decline - Alfred W. McCoy
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For nearly two centuries, the United States has shown a deep ambivalenceabout its path from republic to empire. As the country began its conquest of acontinent in the ïïïïs, Congress commissioned a marble colossus for the CapitolRotunda, the nationâs symbolic center. When delivered from Italy, this massivetwelve-ton, toga-clad statue portrayed George Washington with a mix of classical...
Part 2. Spain’s Long Imperial Retreat
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Reflecting U.S. attitudes toward a fading Spanish empire, a New York satirical magazinecomments, âShe is getting too feeble to hold them.â (Puck, November ïï, ïïïï, Library of...
Eclipse and Collapse of the Spanish Empire, 1650-1898 - Josep B. Delgado Ribas
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It is appropriate that a volume entitled Endless Empire should beginwith Spainâan empire in retreatâwhich seems to have lasted longer than its fis-cal, military, and geopolitical strength should have warranted. Spain is an exem-plary case of imperial flexibility and longevity, defying easy âfiscal-militaryâequations and causing historians to reexamine the durability of empires and to...
Empires in Retreat: Spain and Portugal after the Napoleonic Wars - Josep M. Fradera
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The first significant period of revolution and decolonization in modernEuropean history, which took place from ïïïï to ïïïï, was characterized, amongother things, by two paradoxes. The first is that the long-standing Spanish andPortuguese colonial empiresâpioneers of European ultramarine expansionâpersevered within a new world order forged by the Napoleonic Wars. These...
Imperial Ambitions in an Era of Decline: Micromilitarism and the Eclipse of the Spanish Empire, 1858-1923 - Stephen Jacobson
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Scholars of world history have taken great interest in the rise of theSpanish empire but have paid scant attention to its eclipse. Discovery, conquest,and colonization are central themes in what has been called the ârise of theWest,â âthe European miracle,â or the âgreat divergence.â After the colonizationof Latin America is recounted in many histories, Spain disappears from the nar-...
“The Empire Is No Longer a Social Unit”: Declining Imperial Expectations and Transatlantic Crises in Metropolitan Spain, 1859-1909 - Albert Carcia Balañà
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Toward the end of ïïïï, four armed companies of âCatalan Volunteersâdeparted Barcelona bound for Morocco. Recruited and financed by the provin-cial deputation, their objective was to join the military oï¬ensive that Spain hadlaunched against the sultanate in October as a response to border skirmishesin Ceuta, a city in North Africa that had been under Spanish sovereignty since...
Part 3. Imperial Transitions in Latin America and the Philippines
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...âCommercial Might versus Divine Right: The Morgan Trust King Brings Dismay to theOld Kings of Europe.â (Puck, May ï ï, ïïïï , Library of Congress Prints and Photographs...
Facing South: How Latin America Socialized United States Diplomacy - Greg Grandin
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In the debates over American exceptionalism and what is distinct aboutthe United States, little attention has been paid to one variable that can, at leastin relation to its global ascendance, unambiguously be called unique: its relation -ship with Latin America. âSouth America will be to North America,â the NorthAmerican Review wrote in ïïï ï, âwhat Asia and Africa are to Europe.â1 Not quite....
“Alliance Imperialism” and Anglo-American Power after 1898: The Origins of Open-Door Internationalism - Courtney Johnson
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Among the historic changes that accompanied the rise of U.S. imperial-ism circa ïïïï, scholars have tended to treat the sudden improvement in socialand diplomatic relationsâthe so-called great rapprochementâbetween the Brit -ish Empire and the United States with something akin to benign neglect.1 Whilemany historians have chronicled the various diplomatic, cultural, political, and...
Pro-imperialist Nationalists at the End of Spain’s Caribbean Empire - Francisco A. Scarano
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Between the outbreak of anticolonial revolutions across Spanish Americain ïïïï and the Spanish-Cuban-American War of ïïïï, powerful monarchistminorities that had long guarded the privileges of Spain and its peninsular-bornmerchants, clergy, and oï¬cials in the Hispanic colonies of the Caribbean (Cuba,Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico) were challenged by robust nationalist move-...
Imperial Transition in the Philippines: The Making of a Colonial Discourse about Spanish Rule - María Dolores Elizalde
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One of the more important questions within the literature on imperialtransitions concerns the role of international opinion. One interesting place tostudy this phenomenon is the Philippines, which experienced such a transitionin ïïïï when the United States replaced Spain as the metropolitan power follow -ing the Spanish-American War. As is well known, imperial powers everywhere...
The Broken Image: The Spanish Empire in the United States after 1898 - Christopher Schmidt-Nowara
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The âsplendid little warâ of ïïïï engendered new attitudes toward over-seas empire in the United States, some critical, others celebratory. One aspectof this ideological transformation was a reconsideration of the history of theSpanish empire. As IvÃ¡n JaksiÄ, Richard Kagan, and Mike Wallace have demon-strated, there was a deep distrust of Spain dating back to colonial times. In the...
Part 4. British Global Dominion and Decline
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Lieutenant William Alexander Kerr of the Twenty-Fourth [Bombay] Regiment NativeInfantry winning the Victoria Cross during the Indian Mutiny against British rule, July...
Information and Intelligence in the Mid-Nineteenth-Century Crisis in the British Empire - Tony Ballantyne
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Producing, controlling, and ordering knowledge was at the heart ofBritish colonialism during the nineteenth century. Recent scholarship on BritainâsVictorian empire has suggested that colonial knowledge was central in enabling,justifying, and naturalizing British empire building.1 While these cultural read-ings of Britainâs global reach have illuminated how colonial discourses produced...
The Fin de Siècles of Great Britain and the United States: Comparing Two Declining Phases of Global Capitalist Hegemony - Kelvin Santiago-Valles
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Following the thematic agenda of this volumeâs introduction, the pres-ent essay strives to rise above the narrative details of a single empire to insteadidentify the general features of imperial decline and global governance, albeitwithin the capitalist world-system. Yet in critical dialogue with most of the otheressays in this collection, I argue that core (imperialist) countriesâregardless of...
The Geopolitics of Decolonization - John Darwin
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The causes of decolonization have long been the subject of historicalcontroversy. The relative contributions of the three âusual suspectsââcolonialnationalism, domestic political change, and the post-ïïïï transformation inworld politicsâall have their partisans. Nor is it obvious that any one formula canbe successfully applied to the wide variety of cases that the historian must con-...
Part 5. Complexities and Contradictions of French Decolonization
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French General Henri Delteil signing truce documents at Geneva ending hostilitiesbetween the French and the Democratic Peopleâs Republic of Vietnam, July ï ï, ïïïï....
The Absent Empire: The Colonies in French Constitutions - Emmanuelle Saada
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The past fifteen years have witnessed a profusion of publications with thewords France (or French) and empire in their titles. With some notable exceptions,these works attempt to identify what was âimperialâ about France at various pointsin its history.1 They tend to use the word empire in a very casual wayâoften as syn-onymous with one or more âcolonies.â2 But, as the Jules Michelet quote that begins...
When Did Decolonization End? France and the Ending of Empire - Robert Aldrich
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In the longue durÃ©e of imperial expansion and contraction, France experi-enced two periods of colonial downsizing, the first over the decades from theïïïïs to ïïïï; the second, beginning in the ïïïïs, was largely complete by ïïïï .However, this eclipse of formal empire meant neither the end of Franceâs inter-national presence as a medium-range power nor its commercial, political, and...
Decolonizing France: L. S. Senghor’s Redemptive Program for African Socialism - Gary Wilder
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How might postwar decolonization, including the transition from Euro-pean territorial colonialism to U.S. market imperialism, illuminate our historicalpresent? This important question about decolonization as a process of globalrestructuring motivates this volume. But because much of the historiography ondecolonization is premised on an uncritical methodological nationalism, it is ill-...
Part 6. Subordinate Elites and Imperial Decline in Southeast Asia
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Just a day after the transfer of sovereignty from the Netherlands to the United States ofIndonesia on December ï ï, ïïïï, President Sukarno addressed the people for the first timefrom his new headquarters, the Palace in Koningsplein, Jakarta, declaring that the nation...
Informal Empire: The Case of Siam and the Middle East - Gregory A. Barton
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...âThese half-civilized Governments such as those in China, Portugal, Span -ish America all require a dressing every eight or ten years to keep them in order,âLord Palmerston remarked in Parliament. The year was ïïïï, and these wordsmarked the high noon of British power under the influence of Henry TemplePalmerston. First as foreign secretary (in and out of oï¬ce) and then as prime...
Scientific Patriotism: Medical Science and National Self-Fashioning in Southeast Asia - Warwick Anderson and Hans Pols
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Physicians and scientists dominated the first generation of nationalistsin at least three East Asian colonies in the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies: the Philippines under the Spanish and U.S. regimes, the Dutch EastIndies, and the Japanese territory of Taiwan. There is substantial evidence that ineach place decolonization was practically and symbolically yoked to scientific...
Decolonization and the Roots of Democracy - Remco Raben
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The institution of democracy was a crucial ingredient of the transition ofthe colonized world toward independence. The democratic turn many countriestookâoften characterized as the âsecond waveâ of democratizationâwas insti-gated by the Western powers, which looked for a legitimate successor regime anda stable political system.1 Democracies were established with an urgency that had...
Part 7. Imperial Decline and National Identities
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Declaration of independence and folding of the Portuguese flag in Mozambique, June...
Natives Who Were “Citizens” and Natives Who Were Indígenas in the Portuguese Empire, 1900-1926 - Cristina Nogueira da Silva
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The nature of native political participation within the colonies is a centralissue relevant to imperial eclipse and transition. It is often assumed that elitessuddenly deprived of acquired historic rights and privileges will automaticallyquestion the legitimacy of the metropole. It is also sometimes assumed that met-ropolitan republicanism leads inexorably to claims for colonial independence....
From Subjecthood to Citizenship in South Asia: Migration, Nationality, and the Post-imperial Global Order - Joya Chatterji
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The fall of great empires has often prompted migration. But by all accounts,in the past these were relatively small flows, made up chiefly of soldiers, skilledartisans, and comprador elites who had failed to forge fresh strategic allianceswith new rulers at home, and who migrated abroad in search of political patrons.1The fall of the great European empires, in contrast, and the rise of nation-states...
Part 8. U.S. Global Hegemony
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U.S. Marines take down the flag and transfer control of the Subic Bay naval base to theRepublic of Philippines, ïïïï . (U.S. Department of Defense)...
The “Three R’s” and the Making of a New World Order: Reparation, Reconstruction, Relief, and U.S. Policy, 1945-1952 - Greg Bankoff
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The postâWorld War II transition from a European imperial order to anAmerican world system was not so much a military aï¬air as a financial project.The Truman administration had to rely more on economic than military powerto achieve its foreign policy objectives as Congress initiated a precipitous dis-mantling of the postwar U.S. military machine.1 The trade and monetary agree-...
Entangled Empires: The United States and European Imperial Formations in the Mid-Twentieth Century - Julian Go
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There is a common tale about the rise of the United States after WorldWar II premised on the assumption of American exceptionalism. Presumably,the United States emerged from the war as a benevolent, anti-imperial hegemon.Working from its own deep anti-imperial and democratic values, it pushed theEuropean empires to dismantle and valiantly inaugurated a new global order...
Cold War Transition: Europe’s Decolonization and Eisenhower’s System of Subordinate Elites - Brett Reilly
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At the American Bar Associationâs diamond jubilee in August ïïïï,Secretary of State John Foster Dulles delivered the keynote address juxtaposingïïïï , the year of the associationâs founding, with ïïïï. âBecause we are a prin-cipal source of free-world strength,â he explained, âwe face the intense hostilityof the Soviet-dominated world.â We would not, Dulles continued, âwant to have...
Imperial Illusions: Information Infrastructure and the Future of U.S. Global Power - Alfred W. McCoy
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After a decade of fighting several, simultaneous wars on terror, contra-dictory signs of slippage began to appear in Washingtonâs global dominion. Byï ïïï, it appeared that U.S. military power, unchallenged for decades, was slowlybeing eroded by the countryâs fiscal crisis and waning economic influence.Prominent among those who have predicted this decline, historian Eric Hobs -...
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Page Count: 492
Illustrations: 29 b/w illus.
Publication Year: 2012