Beyond Affirmative Action
Reframing the Context of Higher Education
Publication Year: 2001
Published by: University of Wisconsin Press
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The movement to rescind affirmative action by court decisions or state mandates is forcing leaders in higher education to rethink their strategies and to explore new ways to achieve diversity. Public institutions in California, Florida, and Texas are experimenting with undergraduate...
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Gathering the data and completing this book would not have been possible without the cooperation of an informal network of people at many institutions around the country. I especially wish to extend my appreciation to all the deans and staff members at graduate...
Part I: Reframing the Context of Higher Education
1. Critical Junctures for Change
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Proponents view it as leveling the playing field. Opponents see it as bureaucratized inequality. Whatever they call it, most people think affirmative action in higher education will disappear. Some hope to abolish it; others believe it is evolving. The latest transformation...
2. The Latino Study: Reconceptualizing Culture and Changing the Dynamics of Ethnicity
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Very little is known about Latinos and Latinas in graduate education.We know the total Latino population in the country is growing rapidly, and we have some quantitative data about Latinos in higher education, but are we making the correct assumptions about their...
3. Multicontextuality: A Hidden Dimension in Higher Education
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Something is unique about the difficulties experienced by some Latinos in graduate education. In a preliminary report of my findings for the Council of Graduate Schools, I noted that more than half the Latino participants, both students and faculty, completed their degree with relatively few educational setbacks (Ibarra 1996). Yet a little...
Part II: Latinas and Latinos in Graduate Education and Beyond
4. The Graduate School Experience: Ethnicity in Transformation
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My interviews usually started with a nostalgic tour of the subjects’ past. Where did their families come from? What were their early educational experiences? I continually searched for clues to what may have sparked their interest in pursuing graduate work and, when...
5. “They Really Forget Who They Are”: Latinos and Academic Organizational Culture
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Graduate education is a formidable process of professional socialization. This point was reinforced at an annual meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in 1994, when Claudia Mitchell- Kernan, an anthropologist, described a number of these formative social/ cultural processes. Drawing from a variety of academic studies (see Becker...
6. Latinos and Latinas Encountering the Professoriate
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Many Latino and Latina faculty told me they feel like second-class citizens in academia. Though not regarded as a “race” by the U.S. Census Bureau, Chicanas/os, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and other Latino ethnic groups have been amassed and counted so...
Part III: The Engagement of Cultural Context in Academia
7. Teaching, Testing, and Measuring Intelligence: Uncovering the Evidence That Cultural Context Is Important
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Since the mid-1990s colleagues have increasingly been sharing with me their sense that something is missing from higher education, but they can’t quite figure out what it is. The system has served us well, and we have produced a world-class educational model for research and scholarship. Graduate education, for instance, contributed directly...
8. Reframing the Cultural Context of the Academy: A New Infrastructure for Teaching, Learning, and Institutional Change
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A deep interest in reforming higher education simply has not caught fire with most faculty and administrators. Despite the efforts of some of the best educators in the country, supported by the best-led organizations at the National Center for Higher Education in Washington, D.C., reform has yet to begin. To be sure, numerous educational...
Appendix 1: Institutions Attended by Interviewees
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Appendix 2: Graduate Enrollment, 1986–1996
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Appendix 3: Latino Faculty Issues
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Publication Year: 2001