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Spanish Peru, 1532–1560

A Social History

James Lockhart

Publication Year: 1994

When Spanish Peru, 1532–1560 was published in 1968, it was acclaimed as an innovative study of the early Spanish presence in Peru.  It has since become a classic of the literature in Spanish American social history, important in helping to introduce career-pattern history to the field and notable for its broad yet intimate picture of the functioning of an entire society.  In this second edition, James Lockhart provides a new conclusion and preface, updated terminology, and additional footnotes.

Published by: University of Wisconsin Press

title page

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copyright

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CONTENTS

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pp. vii-

ILLUSTRATIONS

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pp. viii-

TABLES

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pp. ix-

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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

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pp. x-xii

FOR ten or fifteen years I have felt the need of a new edition of Spanish Peru. and having brought my long-lasting efforts in central Mexican ethnohistory to a provisional conclusion, I have finally done something about it. The reader may wonder why I took the trouble, for the book has by no means been...

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xiii-

THIS book is in very large part an attempt to interpret for today's scholarly public the records of sixteenth-century Spanish Peruvian notaries. Those who aided me in the task. absorbing but arduous. have my heartfelt gratitude. I wish to thank Jose Federico Sanchez Regal of the National Archive...

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INTRODUCTION

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pp. 3-10

THE READER is hereby presented with a description of the Spanish society that grew up in Peru during the conquest and civil war period. about 1532 to 1560. For all its remoteness of locale. the conquest of Peru was a major episode in the sixteenth-century Spanish occupation of America. equaled...

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II ENCOMENDEROS AND MAJORDOMOS

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pp. 11-37

The encomienda. as is well known. was the basic instrument of Spanish exploitation of Indian labor and products in the conquest period.

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III NOBLES

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pp. 38-54

IT IS notorious that the hIgh nobility of Spain dId not conquer the Indies. As one old veteran of the Peruvian conquest. Juan Garcia de Hennosilla. wrote. this country of Peru was not won. nor was any blood spilled here. by dukes or counts or people titled "don" or relatives of royal judges. because they didn't...

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IV PROFESSIONALS

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pp. 55-86

IN 1537 the versatile Bachiller Garci Diaz Arias. later bishop of Quito. was serving Francisco Pizarro as chaplain. legal adviser. and private secretary.1 In performing the three tasks at once. Bachiller Diaz showed the close relationship between the three main groups comprising Spanish Peru's professional class: churchmen. men with degrees...

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V MERCHANTS

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pp. 87-108

The numerous professional traders in merchandise who exploited the great riches of Peru stood out from the rest of the Spanish populace. even in a commercially oriented world where everyone from viceroy to carpenter's apprentice...

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VI ARfISANS

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pp. 109-128

THE formidable development of Spanish commerce in the conquest period still left a wide field of action for the numerous. varied group of Spanish artisans working in Peru. The largest single item of conunerce. European cloth. was the raw material from which tailors produced most of the...

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VII SAILORS AND FOREIGNERS

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pp. 129-151

ONE day in 1544 a group of seamen came into Lima from the port of Callao to transact some business. The shipmaster was Greek, the owner Corsican, and the sailors were Genoese, Corsican, Greek, and Slavic. l Non-Spanish Europeans were no rarity in the Peru of the conquest period, but they were a specialized group; in the public mind and in fact...

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VIII TRANSIENTS

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pp. 152-168

TI-lE image of life in the Spanish Indies of the conquest period has been distorted in the past by the overuse of official reports as a source of infonnation. It is not that such sources are worthless, for in fact they do contain priceless infonnation, but they are invariably one-sided, often in predictable...

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IX SPANISH WOMENAND THESECOND GENERATION

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pp. 169-192

SPANISH women constituted a large minority of the settlers in Peru in the conquest period, and their significance was even greater than their numbers, for although women from home were not numerous enough to give every male Spaniard a wife, they sufficed to keep Spanish Peru from being truly a womanless...

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X AFRICANS

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pp. 193-224

IN 1533 Francisco Pizarro. still encamped at Cajamarca after capturing the Inca emperor. sent an advance party on to Cuzco. the first Old World inhabitants to see the Inca capital. One of the four men to go was black.

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XI INDIANS

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pp. 225-250

BlACKS were the most important. but not the only auxiliaries the Spaniards had in the task of conquering and ruling Peru. Partly acculturated Indians of several types lived among the Spaniards and performed many of the same tasks as the blacks. constituting. therefore. a segment of Hispanic society in Peru.

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XII CONCLUSION

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pp. 251-368

GREAT deal of what emerges here can be summed up under the general statement that an essentially intact. complete Spanish society was transferred to Peru in the conquest and civil war period.1 An enormous variety of people partiCipated in the enterprise of conquest and occupation. and among them every stratum of Spanish society and every...

APPENDIX TABLES

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pp. 269-275

NOTES

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pp. 276-301

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 302-314

INDEX

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pp. 315-320

Image Plates

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E-ISBN-13: 9780299141639
Print-ISBN-13: 9780299141646

Publication Year: 1994