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Bones, Bodies amd Behavior

Essays in Behavioral Anthropology

Edited by George W. Stocking, Jr.

Publication Year: 1990

History of Anthropology is a series of annual volumes, inaugurated in 1983, each broadly unified around a theme of major importance to both the history and the present practice of anthropological inquiry. Bones, Bodies, Behavior, the fifth in the series, treats a number of issues relating to the history of biological or physical anthropology: the application of the "race" idea to humankind, the comparison of animals minds to those of humans, the evolution of humans from primate forms, and the relation of science to racial ideology. Following an introductory overview of biological anthropology in Western tradition, the seven essays focus on a series of particular historical episodes from 1830 to 1980: the emergence of the race idea in restoration France, the comparative psychological thought of the American ethnologist Lewis Henry Morgan, the archeological background of the forgery of the remains "discovered" at Piltdown in 1912, their impact on paleoanthropology in the interwar period, the background and development of physical anthropology in Nazi Germany, and the attempts of Franx Boas and others to organize a consensus against racialism among British and American scientists in the late 1930s. The volume concludes with a provocative essay on physical anthropology and primate studies in the United States in the years since such a consensus was established by the UNESCO "Statements on Race" of 1950 and 1951. Bringing together the contributions of a physical anthropologist (Frank Spencer), a historical sociologist (Michael Hammond), and a number of historians of science (Elazar Barkan, Claude Blanckaert, Donna Haraway, Robert Proctor, and Marc Swetlitz), this volume will appeal to a wide range of students, scholars, and general readers interested in the place of biological assumptions in the modern anthropological tradition, in the biological bases of human behavior, in racial ideologies, and in the development of the modern human sciences.

Published by: University of Wisconsin Press

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Bones, Bodies, Behavior

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pp. 3-17

If the history of anthropology is defined in terms of "The systematic study of human unity-in-diversity" (HOA 1:6), then the history of thought about the physical variety of humankind, and about the relations of the biological and the cultural in the understanding of human behavior, must command attention (Spencer 1986). ...

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On the Origins of French Ethnology: William Edwards and the Doctrine of Race

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pp. 18-55

This rather sceptical recollection by Eusebe de Salles, a traveller-polymath of traditional monogenist inclinations, testifies both to the conflict of scholarly authority pervading the polymorphous field of French anthropological studies at the beginning of the nineteenth century and to the consensus that ...

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The Minds of Beavers and the Minds of Humans: Natural Suggestion, Natural Selection, and Experiment in the Work of Lewis Henry Morgan

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pp. 56-83

In May 1862 Lewis Henry Morgan boarded the Spread Eagle in St. Louis and voyaged up the Missouri River past Omaha into the unsettled territories of the Dakotas. His goal was to collect a variety of Indian kinship terms as evidence that American Indian systems of consanguinity were structurally identical. ...

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Prologue to a Scientific Forgery: The British Eolithic Movement from Abbeville to Piltdown

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pp. 84-116

Between 1912 and 1917 an unsuspecting scientific community was led to believe that the remains of an early fossil hominid had been discovered in the gravels at Piltdown, a small village nestled in the Weald of East Sussex. A human skull that seemed to couple an anatomically modern braincase with an ape-like jaw ...

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The Shadow Man Paradigm in Paleoanthropology, 1911-1945

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pp. 117-137

In the physical anthropology of human evolution, the period between 1911 and the end of World War II was striking in that mankind was left virtually ancestorless. One by one, all major fossil populations were assigned to deadend branches in our evolutionary tree. The pitllecanthropines from Java and China, ...

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From Anthropologie to Rassenkunde in the German Anthropological Tradition

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pp. 138-179

In his 1946 history of Hitler's Professors, the Part of Scholarship in Germany's Crimes Against the Jewish People, Max Weinreich cites Justice Robert H. Jackson's opening remarks before the American Military Tribunal at Nuremberg to the effect that "History does not record a crime ever perpetrated against ...

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Mobilizing Scientists Against Nazi Racism, 1933 - 1939

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pp. 180-205

For most of the third quarter of this century, American and British intellectuals were able to take pretty much for granted an underlying univocality of science on matters relating to race and culture. As the catch phrase "pseudo-scientific racism" suggests, it was widely acknowledged that "modern science" ...

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Remodelling the Human Way of Life: Sherwood Washburn and the New Physical Anthropology, 1950 - 1980

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pp. 206-260

With the tools of narrative history, a research program developed over many uncertain years by a heterogeneous collection of people with problematic ties to each other may look like a plan, masterminded by a founding figure with sure access to unbounded resources. Graduate students who report perceiving ...

Index

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pp. 261-272


E-ISBN-13: 9780299112530
Print-ISBN-13: 9780299112547

Publication Year: 1990