Empire and Identity in Guizhou
Local Resistance to Qing Expansion
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Washington Press
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About the Series, Other Works in the Series, Title Page, Copyright
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Foreword by Stevan Harrell
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An old Chinese saying goes, “Th ose on top have policies; those below have counterstrategies” (Shang you zhengce, xia you duice). Th is adage sums up several millennia of relationships between East Asian imperial regimes, which ruled from the productive and powerful center in China, and their poorer, less powerful subjects living in the borderlands. It is still ...
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In the many years since I started this project, I have benefi ted from the advice, wisdom, and encouragement of many people, and it is now my pleasure to acknowledge them. First, I must thank Beatrice S. Bartlett for drawing me into the world of eighteenth-century China and inspiring me to explore the uncharted landscapes of Guizhou. Th anks are also due to ...
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MAP 1. Guizhou’s location in China and eighteenth-century administrative MAP 3. Distribution of the Zhongjia (Buyi) and Nong (Northern Zhuang)...
1. Guizhou and the Livelihoods Approach to Zhongjia History
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China’s imperial offi cials seldom had anything positive to say about Gui-zhou province. In his account from the mid-eighteenth century, Guizhou governor Aibida off ered this blunt analysis of the region’s harsh terrain, Th e [Guizhou] countryside is gloomy and impenetrable. Heavy rains are frequent. Th e fi elds must be terraced [because] the soil is stony. Slash and ...
2. Natural, Human, and Historical Landscapes
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In 1638, during the waning days of the Ming Dynasty and the twilight of his own career, the famed explorer Xu Xiake (1587–1641) embarked on a journey through the mountains, caverns, and forests of Guizhou. His travels took him through many of the regions explored in this book. He entered the province from its southeastern border with Guangxi, made ...
3. The Consolidation of Qing Rule
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When Qing armies completed the military conquest of southwestern China in 1659, Guizhou was an unruly internal frontier. Although the Ming government had organized the region as a province in 1413, Gui-zhou still bore only the faintest imprints of imperial control. Th e province was an ethnic patchwork, populated by a variety of indigenous non-Han ...
4. Livelihood Choices in the Mid-Eighteenth Century
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Imperial authorities hoped that the reforms of the Yongzheng reign would transform the Zhongjia into compliant subjects. Instead, local residents continued to make decisions based on the fl exibility and pragmatism that had sustained them for centuries. Rather than submit uncritically to the state’s demands, the Zhongjia made livelihood choices that best suited ...
5. The Nanlong Uprising of 1797
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In February 1797, members of the Zhongjia ethnic group launched an uprising against the Qing state. Rallying under the battle cry, “Heaven will exterminate the Han Chinese, native headmen, and imperial troops” (Tian jiang mie Hanren, bing mie Miaomu bingyi), the rebels laid siege to the prefectural seat of Nanlong and sacked neighboring villages. Provin-...
6. A Legacy of Fragile Hegemony
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Qing China’s Manchu rulers faced special challenges in legitimizing and consolidating their rule over Guizhou. In other newly acquired ter-ritories such as Mongolia, Tibet, Xinjiang, and even southern Yunnan, the foreign origins of the Qing ruling house off ered certain advantages. Th e Manchus could adopt Ming institutions and bureaucratic procedures ...
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Page Count: 233
Publication Year: 2013
Edition: 1st edition
Series Title: Studies on Ethnic Groups in China
Series Editor Byline: Stevan Harrell