Exemplary Figures / Fayan
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Washington Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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My f_irst thanks must go to David Knechtges, whose knowledge of the Fayan is unparalleled, and to Anne Cheng, who not only encouraged me in this project but also alerted me to the need to take Yang Xiong seriously as a historian. Nathan Sivin, Marc Kalinowski, and Béatrice L’Haridon have all provided insights into aspects of Yang Xiong’s life ...
Chronology of Dynasties
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Xia Traditionally 22zero.oldstyle5–1seven.oldstylesix.oldstylesix.oldstyle BCEShang Traditionally 1six.oldstylezero.oldstylezero.oldstyle–ca. 1zero.oldstyle5zero.oldstyle BCEWestern Zhou Ca. 1zero.oldstyle5zero.oldstyle–seven.oldstyleseven.oldstyle1 BCEChunqiu seven.oldstyleseven.oldstylezero.oldstyle–four.oldstyle81 BCESong nine.oldstylesix.oldstylezero.oldstyle–12seven.oldstylenine.oldstyle ...
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In an era before strict genre distinctions, Yang Xiong 揚雄 (53 BCE–18 CE) wrote a work to which he gave the title Fayan 法言. From the begin-ning, scholars have variously treated Yang’s text as a philosophical mas-terwork, a commentary on the Analects (Lunyu 論語) and Sima Qian’s 司馬遷 (1four.oldstyle5?–8six.oldstyle? BCE) Shiji 史記 (usually rendered as Records of the His-...
Chapter 1. Learning and Practicing
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When heaven f_irst came down to give birth to the people,one.fitted they were dense and dim-witted. As they gave free rein to their own instincts, their faculties of sight and hearing were quite undeveloped. In order to instruct them [the people] according to certain principles, I compiled chapter 1, 1.1To practice what one has learned is best; to articulate it is second best; ...
Chapter 2. Our Masters
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In the period from the Duke of Zhou to Kongzi, they perfected them-selves with respect to the Kingly Way. Af_terward the great precepts were subverted, and the various masters held subtle teachings in contempt. 2.1Someone asked me, “When you, sir, were young, you liked composing “T_hat is true. Young lads will carve insect and seal scripts.”two.fitted A moment ...
Chapter 3. Cultivating One's Person
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Af_fairs have a basic truth in them, which unfolds in an inf_inite number of forms. If one’s deeds do not persuade others, one should seek the fun-damental reason in one’s own person. T_hus, I have compiled chapter 3, 3.1Cultivation of one’s person can be likened to a bow. Straightening one’s thoughts can be likened to arrows. Fixing one’s sights on one’s duty can ...
Chapter 4. Asking about the Way
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Vast, vast is heaven’s Way. In times past, the sages perfected it. “Going beyond it” means losing the Mean, while “failing to reach it” spells a fail-ure to attain it. It cannot be def_iled or maligned. T_hus, I have compiled “Whatever leads straight to Yao, Shun, and King Wen is the true and straight path. T_he paths that have nothing to do with Yao, Shun, and King ...
Chapter 5. Asking about Divine Insight
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T_he heart so divine may seem as vague and unknowable as the gods, yet it is the alpha and omega when it comes to governing the myriad regions.one.fitted Its workings are tied to the Way, to charismatic virtue, to humanity, to a sense of duty and propriety, and to ritual decorum. T_hus, I have com-“It immerses itself in heaven and so becomes heaven; it immerses itself ...
Chapter 6. Asking about Illumination
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T_he man of illuminedone.fitted wisdom, resplendent and bright, shines every-where like a torch,two.fitted his inf_luence without limits. Avoiding unforeseen dangers, he preserves the life that heaven conferred. T_hus, I have com-Someone asked me, “But in what respect is faint light comparable with “When that faint light becomes visible, how is its inherent brilliance ...
Chapter 7. Things Rarely Seen
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Far-ranging words from remote eras encompass heaven and earth, giving aid to divine insight. Profound and great, vast and broad, such words far surpass those of recent times and narrow scope.one.fitted T_hus, I have compiled 7.1“Rarely have I seen people prefer what is remote.two.fitted Recent writings they look at. Recent sayings they hearken to. But they turn their backs on ...
Chapter 8. Every Five Hundred Years
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T_he sage, with senses keen and profoundly good, succeeds to heaven and fathoms the divine. Superior to the common herd, he it is who sets down all the norms. T_hus, I have composed chapter 8, “Every Five Hundred 8.1Someone asked me, “Is it true that a sage appears every f_ive hundred “In the case of Yao, Shun, and Yu, the rulers and ministers were con-...
Chapter 9. Foresight
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In establishing policies, rousing the masses, and inf_luencing the empire, nothing is superior to putting the Mean at Center. To begin this requires knowledge of the people’s predilections. T_hus, I have composed chapter 9.1“To know something in advance—how near to the gods that is!”two.fitted “I wouldn’t know anything about that.four.fitted But for the person who recog-...
Chapter 10. Chong and Li
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Since the time of Zhongni, rulers, generals, chancellors, ministers, men in service, and famous of_f_icers have been judged by disparate standards. I judge them by a single standard, that of the sages. T_hus, I have composed 10.1Someone asked me, “If Chong, the Regulator of the South, was in charge of the heavens, and Li, the Regulator of the North,one.fitted was in charge of earth, ...
Chapter 11. Yan Hui and Min Ziqian
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From the time of Zhongni, on down to the Han way, there have been the exemplary men of virtuous conduct, the Yan Huis and Min Ziqians, and exemplary right-hand men, the Xiao Hes and Cao Shens,one.fitted not to men-tion famous generals. Ranking their eminence, I weigh and relate their types and qualities. T_hus, I have compiled chapter 11, “Yan Hui and Min ...
Chapter 12. The Noble Man
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T_he noble man who remains pure to the end earns a f_ine reputation. Malefactors wreaking havoc, they he constrains,one.fitted at every point develop-ing the models of the sages. T_hus, I have compiled chapter 12, “T_he Noble 12.1Someone asked me, “In his every speech, the noble man brings to per-fection his visible ref_inements of character, and in his every action, he ...
Chapter 13. Honoring the Ancestors, the Ultimate Duty
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For f_ilial duty, nothing is greater than comforting parents. For comfort-ing parents, nothing is greater than comforting the spirits.one.fitted And for com-forting spirits, nothing is better than cheering the hearts of the whole realm. T_hus, I have compiled chapter 13, “Honoring the Ancestors, the 13.1Filial duty is surely best of all!three.fitted All is encompassed in that single word ...
Glossary of Names, Legendary and Historical
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Publication Year: 2013
Edition: 1st edition.
Series Title: Classics of Chinese thought
Series Editor Byline: John Smith, Will Wordsworth