A Principled Stand
The Story of Hirabayashi v. the United States
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Washington Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Gordon Kiyoshi Hirabayashi (one.oldstylenine.oldstyleone.oldstyleeight.oldstyle–two.oldstylezero.oldstyleone.oldstyletwo.oldstyle) is best know.scn for being one of three Japanese Americans whose legal challenges to the curfew imposed on and the subsequent removal of Japanese Americans from their homes reached the U.S. Supreme Court during the one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstylezero.oldstyles. We wrote A Principled Stand in order to complement the ...
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First and f.scoremost, w.sce thank Gordon’s w.scif.sce, Susan Car-nahan, and his children, Marian, Sharon, and Jay. Lorraine Bannai, Roger Daniels, Jerry Kang, Tetsuden Kashima, Eric Muller, Jeanne Sakata, Paul Tsuneishi, and Karen Tei Yamashita have each shared resources with us. In Seattle, Ken House, archivist, National Archives ...
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Part I. An Issei-Nisei Family
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P.scart I.sc introduces the Hirabayashi f.scamily, tracing.sc its roots back to Nagano prefecture, northeast of Tokyo. As compilers of the book, we have drawn freely from Gordon’s personal correspon-dence and a number of his published and unpublished papers cover-ing his parents’ background and his own upbringing, as well as from ...
1. Hotaka to Seattle
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M.scy dad, Shung.sco, came f.scrom Hotaka, a tow.scn in the f.scoot-hills of the Japanese Alps in Nagano prefecture. There was a neighbor-hood of a dozen Hirabayashi households in a rural setting at the edge of town. He was the eldest son in one of the Hirabayashi households. His father was a clerk in the town of_f_ice, and his mother tended what ...
2. Growing Up in America
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I.sc w.scas born in one.oldstylenine.oldstyleone.oldstyleeight.oldstyle in Seattle, the second son. Af.scter w.sce moved to our Thomas farm in one.oldstylenine.oldstyleone.oldstylenine.oldstyle, my brother Paul, who was two years older, had an accident while riding on his bicycle. The medical care in those days was not good, and Paul died from damage to his kidneys. I then became the chonan—eldest son—destined to be the ...
3. “You’re Going to College”
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P.scursuing.sc an education w.scas an automatic f.scor me as long.sc as I could make the grade. Although we were a poor farm family, my parents led me to anticipate university following high school, much school. Mom said, “You’re going to college but you are going to a good school. The guys going to the University of Washington—that’s just ...
Part II. Challenges and Incarceration
Af.scter the United States entered W.scorld W.scar I.scI.sc, Gordon followed a variety of local newspapers on a daily basis. He assiduously cut out articles and pasted them in scrapbooks. Most of the articles he collected indicate that all persons of Japanese or part-Japanese were going to be subject to informal and formal restrictions at dif_fer-...
4. World War II
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R.sceturning.sc f.scrom N.scew.sc Y.scork, I.sc became one of.sc the leaders of the UW student conscientious objectors group right after the f_irst peacetime conscription law [Selective Training and Service Act of one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstylezero.oldstyle] was passed. We were using the YMCA as a meeting place. We needed to discuss many things, with war fever rising. Colonel Kim-...
5. Arraignment Summons
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...that if I couldn’t tolerate curfew, then how could I agree to be evacu-ated, which is much worse? I had ignored the curfew order, but the exclusion order was dif_ferent. If I were roaming the streets, sooner or later I’d be accosted and picked up. On May one.oldstylesix.oldstyle, one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstyletwo.oldstyle, I made arrange-ments with Arthur Barnett to meet me in the morning after the last ...
6. King County Jail
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Tank—they use that w.scord—three.oldstyleC is the f.scederal tank, and it has a capacity of forty persons. It has two levels of f_ive cells, with four bunks on each side. There are twenty men over here on this aisle, back-to-back. They all face out. At six.oldstyle or six.oldstyle:three.oldstylezero.oldstyle a.m., they open up and keep the hallways open. Then you go into the day tank, with a table ...
7. King County Jail Mates
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As f.scor my f.scellow.sc prisoners, in round f.scig.scures I.sc w.scould say that maybe five.oldstylezero.oldstyle percent were there as a result of some kind of war-time regulation violation of one type or another: some resisted the draft or some other type of war-related thing. In other words, they were not your typical “criminal.” The others were petty thieves, this ...
8. Jail Visitations
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King.sc County J.scail has tw.sco days a w.sceek that are called visitors’ days. The visiting facility is perfectly horrible here, where you can either talk or look, and you have to yell into an inhuman contrap-The sherif_f said of me, “This boy has more friends than anybody I ever saw.” All of those friends were Caucasian, since all my Japanese ...
9. World War II Interracial Marriage
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...[Diary entries from] King County Jail, August one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstyletwo.oldstyle— . . . If more of our so-called love and marriages were based on others’ con-cerns without ulterior motives, this would be a much happier world in which to live, and more people would experience something more closely approximating true love. As it is today, most of us are too busy ...
10. Prison Meditations
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P.scursuing.sc his study of.sc N.sceg.scro-ow.scned new.scspapers, W.scest-brook Pegler notes that some few are “excited about the arbitrary try from military areas of the Pacif_ic Coast” (June four.oldstyle, one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstyletwo.oldstyle; quoted in “Views & Views,” George S. Schuyler, Los Angeles Negro Daily, six.oldstyle June one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstyletwo.oldstyle). Pegler quotes from two who ask why citizens of German and ...
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Tw.sco sig.scnif.scicant thing.scs happened this w.sceek (J.sculy four.oldstyle, one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstyletwo.oldstyle) that were of interest from the legal side. First, my lawyer, Frank Walters, came in with a plea of abatement. This plea stated that I was a native-born citizen of good standing and, as such, should receive the benef_its thereof. Therefore, I should not be incarcerated ...
12. Seattle Federal District Court
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Defense Committee as chief counsel, was the second lawyer hired. The f_irst was John Geisness, a young, bright lawyer in a large f_irm that represented the Teamsters Union. The union had objected: “We’re not happy that a f_irm representing us is taking the Hirabayashi case.” The union would not be able to retain this law f_irm if it persisted in sup-...
13. U.S. Supreme Court
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M.scarch two.oldstyleseven.oldstyle, one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstylethree.oldstyle—The court of.sc appeals passed my case to the Supreme Court to decide the constitutionality of Public Law five.oldstylezero.oldstylethree.oldstyle We retained Harold Evans, a Quaker lawyer from Philadelphia with Supreme Court experience, who said, “There is a good bit of sympathy in Quaker circles for Hirabayashi, a high type of man.” He reasonably ...
14. Out on Bail
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I remained in jail four months into the appeal period. By that time, Judge Black was willing to release me. We’d become sort of like old friends, in terms of his knowledge of me, and he said, “We ought to get him out.” We worked out a compromise that I would go to Spo-kane, which was outside of the restricted area for Japanese Ameri-...
15. Thumbing to Jail
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Tow.scard the end of.sc summer one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstylethree.oldstyle, about three months after the U.S. Supreme Court decision, I was in Spokane doing my work with the American Friends Service Committee. I was out on bail at the time but still faced a ninety-day sentence. One afternoon as I was mow-ing the lawn, a couple of guys walked up, identif_ied themselves as FBI ...
16. Catalina Federal Honor Camp
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W.schen I.sc reported to the U.S. marshal’s of.scf.scice in Tucson, I said, “Well, I’m supposed to report to you to serve my sentence at And he shuf_f_led through the f_iles and said, “What’s your name? We don’t have any orders to put you in, so you might as well go I said, “It took me a couple of weeks to get down here, and I’d go ...
17. Federal Prison Again
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February one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstylefour.oldstyle—There w.scere a number of.sc ef.scf.scorts of.sc the leaders of the Japanese American Citizens League to get the govern-ment to restore normal citizenship rights to the Japanese Americans. My position on the camps, to the extent it was known to the Japa-nese community, was an embarrassment to them. I never got support ...
Part III. The Postwar Years and Vindication
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...the war. Nor did he systematically save his own letters or save letters written to him. This obviously makes part III somewhat dif_ferent in we found in Gordon’s f_iles, summarizing his educational and profes-sional trajectory after the war. In short order, he f_inished his bach-elor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees before accepting a series of ...
18. Early Postwar Experiences
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Af.scter f.scinishing.sc my M.sccN.sceil stint in one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstylefive.oldstyle, I.sc w.scas back in Seattle, and I asked the University of Washington bookstore manager, Ev McRay, if he could get me a job at the bakery across the street. The owner, Marlatt, was a personal friend of McRay’s who expressed interest in hiring me. Marlatt noted, however, “I don’t think I can get ...
19. Coram Nobis
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I.scn the early one.oldstylenine.oldstyleeight.oldstylezero.oldstyles, Aiko Herz.scig.sc-Y.scoshinag.sca, senior archi-vist for the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, discovered an original draft of a manuscript written by Gen-eral John L. DeWitt, Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942. DeWitt’s Final Report is critically important because, as ...
Appendix 1. Major Publications
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Appendix 2. Professional Positions, Honors, and Awards
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Glossary of Names
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American Friends Service Committee. Speak Truth to Power: A Quaker Alter-native to Violence. one.oldstylenine.oldstylefive.oldstylefive.oldstyle. http://www.quaker.org/sttp.html.Caldarola, Carlo. Christianity: The Japanese Way. Leiden: E. J. Brill, one.oldstylenine.oldstyleseven.oldstylenine.oldstyle.Commission on the Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Per-sonal Justice Denied. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Of_f_ice, ...
About the Coauthors
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J.scames A. Hirabayashi (one.oldstylenine.oldstyletwo.oldstylesix.oldstyle–two.oldstylezero.oldstyleone.oldstyletwo.oldstyle), son of hardworking immigrant farm-ers in the Pacif_ic Northwest and brother of Gordon Hirabayashi, was a high school senior in one.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstyletwo.oldstyle when he was detained in the Pinedale Assembly Center before being transferred to the Tule Lake Concentration Camp in Northern California. After World War II, he earned his BA and MA degrees in anthro-...
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Publication Year: 2013