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Unending Crisis

National Security Policy after 9/11

by Thomas Graham Jr.

Publication Year: 2012

In Unending Crisis, Thomas Graham Jr. examines the second Bush administration's misguided management of foreign policy, the legacy of which has been seven major - and almost irresolvable - national security crises involving North Korea, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, the Arab-Israeli conflict in Palestine, and nuclear proliferation. Unending Crisis considers these issues individually and together, emphasizing their interrelationship and delineating the role that the neoconservative agenda played in redefining the way America is perceived in the world today.

Published by: University of Washington Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv


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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-xii

A British foreign secretary i s reported to have defined “foreign affairs” as “one damned thing after another.” This timely volume shows that the reality is even worse. Many affairs do not end to be followed by others but simply go on. Some, like Western Sahara, divided Cyprus, Chechnya, and Somalia simmer a bit below the boiling...

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pp. xiii-xiv

Of the thirty-two years I spent in the United States government, twenty-seven were devoted to arms control and nonproliferation issues and negotiations. In the years 1970–97, I participated in a senior capacity in every major arms control and nonproliferation negotiation...

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pp. xv-2

With the end of the Cold War in 1990, it seemed that a new era of peace and concord lay ahead. It was a captivating prospect at the close of a century stained by two global conflicts that had left millions dead and by the decades-long Cold War that, on several occasions, had threatened nuclear destruction of the entire world....

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One: North Korea

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pp. 3-28

The roots of the North Korean nuclear problem stretch deep into history. In 1964, North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung, who was installed by the Soviets after World War II and later triggered the Korean War when he launched an attack on South Korea, journeyed to China seeking nuclear weapons technology. North Korea had...

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Two: Iran

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pp. 29-52

Iran has been pursuing nuclear weapons for many decades. With the assistance of France, Germany, and South Africa, Iran began developing plans for a large nuclear infrastructure during the 1970s, under the former shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi. The Iranian government signed a contract with Siemens of Germany to...

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Three: Afghanistan

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pp. 53-79

Afghanistan has been called the Crossroad of Empires; it has also been called the Graveyard of Empires. It comprises the easternmost part of the Iranian plateau and, given the arc of the impassable Himalayas, is the primary land connection linking the great empires of Central Asia, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent....

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Four: Pakistan

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pp. 80-106

One cannot separate the issue of Pakistan from that of Afghanistan or indeed from other major security issues. Through the depredations of A. Q. Khan,1 as well as other disastrous and unconstructive policies over the years, Pakistan is linked to the nuclear weapon programs in North Korea and Iran as well as to international terrorism....

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Five: Iraq

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pp. 107-130

Iraq in 2003 and thereafter has claimed the richly deserved title of poster child for misguided policy. It is difficult to summarize all the ways in which the decision to invade Iraq was in error. It is true that both candidates in the 2000 presidential election called for the overthrow of Saddam Hussein, but there is a difference between campaign...

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Six: Palestine

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pp. 131-158

In the modern Middle East, the Ar ab- Israeli conflict is the original conflict. It is the grandfather of all the international wars in the region, and in one way or another, the peaceful resolution of the crises in the area described in this book depends on its solution. General David Petraeus, in March 2010, while still the chief of U.S. Central Command,...

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Seven: The Rule of Law

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pp. 159-169

As Ahmed Rashid so unforgettably put it in the opening lines of his book Descent into Chaos, “Everyone, everywhere, will always remember the moment when he saw and heard about two airliners striking the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001. It was a historical event that will be embedded in our emotional psyche for all time and...

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Eight: The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

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pp. 170-187

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is the central security instrument for the United States and the world community. Thus far it has to a large degree been successful. Soon after the end of World War II, as a symptom of the Cold War that commenced shortly thereafter, a vast nuclear-arms race between the United States and the...

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Nine: The Arab Spring

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pp. 188-196

In the very early morning, Mohammed Bouazizi, a young fruit vendor in the small rural town of Sidi Bouzid in Tunisia, pulled his cart along the narrow road leading to the market. Bouazizi was a victim of Tunisia’s crony-capitalist economy and the corruption of local officials. Although an educated man, he had been reduced to selling fruit...

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pp. 197-203

So what should we make of all this? In January 2001, the United States had been the indispensable world leader for nearly sixty years. After the end of the Cold War, it was left standing as the sole hyperpower, but even during World War II, it was the strongest state in the world and, over the forty-five years of the Cold War, was...

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pp. 204-214

As spring 2011 faded into summer, important developments took place with respect to the Arab Spring and the subjects addressed in this book. The Egyptian and Tunisian revolutions were a number of months old, and the initial euphoria had been replaced by concern about the magnitude of the problems ahead. The rapid toppling...


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pp. 215-225


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pp. 226-248


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pp. 249-255


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pp. 256-268

E-ISBN-13: 9780295804163
E-ISBN-10: 0295804165
Print-ISBN-13: 9780295991702
Print-ISBN-10: 0295991704

Publication Year: 2012

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Subject Headings

  • National security -- United States
  • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1989.
  • United States -- Foreign relations -- 1989-.
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