A History of Argentina in the Twentieth Century
Updated and Revised Edition
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: Penn State University Press
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Table of Contents
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Preface to the Updated and Revised English-Language Edition
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I believe that, once published, a book should be a closed case for its author. Ithas a certain life span. It is read, and ages, hopefully with dignity. Yet there areoccasions?happy ones to be sure?in which the author must remain tied toa book and assume the risk of transforming it into a sort of serial publication.In the case of this text, my incentive to update it is its continued utilization in...
Preface to the First Spanish-Language Edition
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In this synthesis of twentieth-century Argentine history, I have not sought?as is generally the case in this type of book?either to prove a thesis or to findthat unique and revealing cause of a singular, in this case somewhat infelici-tous, national destiny. I have merely attempted to reconstruct the history?complex, contradictory, and unique?of a society that unquestionably has...
Preface to the First English-Language Edition
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With this book, I hope to offer English-speaking readers a broad overview of Argentina?s contemporary history and of the country?s current problems,such as they at present appear to be. The book was originally written for stu-dents and the general public in Argentina, that is, for people who, it was as-sumed, knew little about Argentine history. Thus, I have sought above all to...
Chapter 1: 1916
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On October 12, 1916, Hip?lito Yrigoyen assumed the presidency of Ar-gentina. It was an exceptional day. A multitude of people filled the Plaza delCongreso and adjacent streets, cheering for a president who for the first time had been chosen in elections with universal adult male suffrage, a secretballot, and a compulsory vote, as stipulated in the new electoral law passed ...
Chapter 2: The Radical Governments, 1916–1930
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Hip?lito Yrigoyen served as president from 1916 to 1922, the year thatMarcelo T. de Alvear succeeded him in the presidency. In 1928, Yrigoyen wasreelected, only to be deposed by a military revolt on September 6, 1930. It would be another sixty-one years before an elected president would peace-fully transfer power to his successor. Thus, these twelve years in which demo-...
Chapter 3: The Conservative Restoration, 1930–1943
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On September 6, 1930, General Jos? F?lix Uriburu assumed power as pro-visional president, transferring the office on February 20, 1932, to GeneralAgust?n P. Justo, who had been elected, together with the vice president Julio A. Roca, in November of the previous year. In the interim, the provi-sional government had presided over elections for governor in the province of...
Chapter 4: The Perón Government, 1943–1955
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The military government that assumed power on June 4, 1943, was headed insuccession by General Pedro Pablo Ram?rez and General Edelmiro J. Farrell.But Colonel Juan Domingo Per?n, one of the government?s leading mem-bers, was successful in rallying a vast political movement around his persona,permitting him to win the February 1946 elections shortly after his popular...
Chapter 5: The Stalemate, 1955–1966
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The day after the coup?if not before?the heterogeneity of the front thathad conspired to overthrow Per?n could be seen. General Eduardo Lonardiheaded the new government and declared himself provisional president,thereby indicating his resolve to restore constitutional order. Surrounded byCatholic groups?the most active but also newcomers to the opposition?...
Chapter 6: Dependency or Liberation, 1966–1976
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A broad consensus surrounded the coup d??tat of June 28, 1966. Both big andsmall business, the majority of the political parties?with the exception of the Radicals, Socialists, and Communists?and even many groups on the farleft were content with the end of ?bourgeois? democracy. Per?n gave it quali-fied support, though he recommended a wait-and-see attitude to his follow-...
Chapter 7: The “Process,” 1976–1983
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On March 24, 1976, the Junta commanders-in-chief, General Jorge RafaelVidela, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera, and Air Force Brigadier OrlandoRam?n Agosti, assumed power. They immediately issued the legal instru-ments of the so-called Process of National Reorganization and designatedGeneral Videla president of the nation; he also continued as army comman-...
Chapter 8: Advance and Retreat, 1983–1989
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The new president, Ra?l Alfons?n, assumed the presidency on December 10,1983, and a crowd gathered in the Plaza de Mayo for his inauguration. To signal both the continuities and the break with the country?s previous politi-cal tradition, he jettisoned the practice of speaking from the ?historic bal-conies? of the presidential palace. Instead, he chose to speak from the nearby...
Chapter 9: The Great Transformation, 1989–1999
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On July 9, 1989, President Alfons?n handed over power to the president-elect,Carlos Sa?l Menem. This occasion was the first peaceful transfer by one de-mocratically elected president to another since 1928 and the first since 1916 inwhich a president ceded power to the candidate of an opposition party. Thesefacts spoke well of the consolidation of the democratic regime reestablished in...
Chapter 10: Crisis and Reconstruction, 1999–2005
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The Alianza government was forced to deal with a complex economic situa-tion centered on the maintenance or abandonment of the ConvertibilityPlan. President de la R?a resigned in December 2001 when a deep economic,political, and social crisis erupted, and Eduardo Duhalde was chosen by theCongress to complete his term. The crisis fully unfolded throughout 2002,...
Chapter 11: A New Opportunity, 2005–2010
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Late 2005 marked the beginning of the period dominated by N?storKirchner; it would conclude with his death in October 2010. In December2007, he completed his presidential term and was succeeded by his wife,Senator Cristina Fern?ndez de Kirchner, who took office with Julio Cobos ofthe UCR as her vice president. Thus began a singular and unprecedented po-...
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It is not easy to end a book when, as in our case, a political cycle is still underway and full of unknowns for its contemporaries. Nonetheless, I believe thatsomething has ended with the death of N?stor Kirchner?kirchnerismo?andthat we are in the first act of a new period of cristinismo. It is too soon to as-sess the magnitude of their differences and to determine whether they are...
Glossary of Spanish Terms
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...of the Casa Rosada to their followers assembled in the Plaza de Mayo?An excellent history, with a fine balance between the economic, the political and the social. Romero is particularly good on the social history of the earlier twentieth century, charting the effects of the rapid cultural modernization that would be created by Peronism?s promise of welfare and cultural autarky.?...
Page Count: 425
Publication Year: 2013
Edition: Updated and Revised Edition