The Problems and Promise of Commercial Society
Adam Smith's Response to Rousseau
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: Penn State University Press
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The joys of finishing a first book are many, but chief among them, for me, is the opportunity it presents to express my gratitude to those who have supported me along the way. Given that this book grew out of my dissertation, I must begin by thanking my teachers, who showed me through their example what it means to be a devoted teacher and scholar. During my time as an undergraduate...
List of Abbreviations
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Liberal democracy and market capitalism would seem to be the great success stories of our ageâindeed, of any age. While troubling levels of deprivation and oppression still blot large regions of the globe, people living in todayâs liberal capitalist societies enjoy unprecedented levels of prosperity as well as a greater degree of civil, political, and economic freedom than has been...
1. Rousseauâs Unhappy Vision of Commercial Society
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On receiving a copy of the Discourse on Inequality in 1755, Voltaire wrote to Rousseau: âI have received, Sir, your new book against the human race. . . .One acquires the desire to walk on all fours when one reads your work. Nevertheless, since I lost this habit more than sixty years ago, I unfortunately feel that it is impossible for me to take it up againâ (CW III, 102). This is a common view...
2. Smithâs Sympathy with Rousseauâs Critique
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Rousseau claims in his Confessions that âthe Discourse on Inequality . . . found only a few readers who understood it in all of Europe, and none of these wanted to talk about itâ (Confessions VIII, 326). We will see in this chapter, however, that Adam Smith not only understood this work and wanted to talk about it, but also was far more sympathetic to its arguments than is commonly acknowledged.
3. The European Peasant and the Prudent Man
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We have seen that Smith was well aware ofâeven more, insisted onâthe many problems associated with commercial society. Indeed, if taken in isolation his statements on the debilitating effects of the division of labor and on the rapacity of merchants and manufacturers would seem to comprise a devastating condemnation of this kind of society. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that...
4. Progress and Happiness
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In The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Smith states that âall constitutions of government . . . are valued only in proportion as they tend to promote the happiness of those who live under them. This is their sole use and endâ (TMS IV.1.11, 185). In other words, Smithâs standard for judging a society seems to consist much more in how happy it is than in how wealthy it is. Thus, Smithâs best-known...
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The fundamental puzzle in Adam Smithâs thought, I have contended, consists of the fact that he simultaneously concedes a good deal of validity to each of Rousseauâs rather severe critiques of commercial society and also resolutely defends this kind of society. Smith provides a number of different counterarguments and countermeasures for a number of the problems that Rousseau points to,...
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Page Count: 208
Publication Year: 2009