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The Fujimori Legacy

The Rise of Electoral Authoritarianism in Peru

Edited by Julio F. Carrión

Publication Year: 2006

President Alberto Fujimori’s sudden resignation in November 2000 brought an end to a highly controversial period in Peruvian history. His meteoric rise to power in 1990 fueled by widespread popular support, followed by his decision to dissolve Congress and rule by decree in 1992, has made his regime a focus of special attention by scholars trying to understand this complex and contradictory presidency.This book offers a comprehensive assessment of Fujimori’s regime in the context of Latin America’s struggle to consolidate democracy after years of authoritarian rule. Setting the regime conceptually in a discussion of alternative forms of government—delegative democracy, neopopulism, and electoral authoritarianism—the essays study it from two different perspectives: external (in its relations with political parties, Lima’s mayors, public opinion, women, the U.S. government) and internal (examining economic policies as determined by governing coalitions, networks of corruption, and Fujimori’s unsavory relationship with his security advisor Vladimiro Montesinos). Overall, The Fujimori Legacy helps illuminate the persistent obstacles that Latin American countries face in establishing democracy.In addition to the editor, contributors are Robert Barr, Maxwell Cameron, Catherine Conaghan, Henry Dietz, Philip Mauceri, Cynthia McClintock, David Scott Palmer, Kenneth Roberts, Gregory Schmidt, John Sheahan, Kurt Weyland, and Carol Wise.

Published by: Penn State University Press

Front Cover

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Copyright

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pp. iv-

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

This book would not have been possible without the generosity and support of many people. The international conference that led to this publication, held in 2002 in Washington, D.C., was funded by the University of Delaware and the Dante B. Fascell North-South Center at the University of Miami. At Delaware, the Department of Political Science and International Relations, the Center for International Studies, and the ...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xiii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

The collapse of the presidency of Alberto Fujimori in November 2000 brought an end to one of the most controversial periods in the contemporary political history of Peru. After a decade in power and a contested reelection in 2000, President Fujimori was removed from office on the ground of ‘‘moral incapacity’’ by a vote of Congress. Thus far, Fujimori ...

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1. The Rise and Decline of Fujimori’s Neopopulist Leadership

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pp. 13-38

The government of Alberto Fujimori is a prototypical case of neopopulist leadership (Roberts 1995; Weyland 1996, 2001) and ‘‘delegative democracy’’ (O’Donnell 1994). In this type of government, a personalistic, plebiscitarian leader rules based on a quasi-direct, largely unmediated relationship to a heterogeneous, mostly unorganized mass of people.1 ...

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2. An Authoritarian Presidency: How and Why Did Presidential Power Run Amok in Fujimori's Peru?

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pp. 39-60

Since first being elected president in 1990, Alberto Fujimori dominated the politics of Peru by defining the policy agenda, redesigning the country’s institutional framework and maintaining almost consistently high public-approval ratings. No other institution within the state structure appeared to check presidential power, and until the very end of the regime ...

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3. Fujimori and the Mayors of Lima, 1990-2001: The Impact and Legacy of Neopopulist Rule

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pp. 61-80

Alberto Fujimori’s tenure as Peruvian president serves as an exemplar of neopopulist rule, with its exaggerated levels of personalism, anti-institutionalism, and heavy reliance on support from the marginalized masses (Roberts 1995; Weyland 1996). Significant bodies of research compare and contrast the nature of neopopulism with that of classic populism, as ...

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4. Do Parties Matter? Lessons from the Fujimori Experience

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pp. 81-101

Political parties have performed such a diverse array of representative and governing functions that it is difficult to conceive of democratic politics in their absence. Indeed, even many authoritarian regimes have used parties to mobilize popular support, penetrate and control civil society, staff the government with political loyalists, coordinate the policymaking ...

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5. The Immoral Economy of Fujimorismo

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pp. 102-125

Historians will forever thank Vladimiro Montesinos for his devotion to documentation in the video age. Since the fall of the government of President Alberto Fujimori in November 2000, hundreds of videotapes and audio recordings chronicling the abuses and corruption of the regime have been made public. Most of the videos released to date feature the ...

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6. Public Opinion, Market Reforms, and Democracy in Fujimori's Peru

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pp. 126-149

A defining feature of the regime of Alberto Fujimori was its sustained level of approval in public opinion polls.1 Although this support declined after 1997, it remained significantly high (in comparison with that for previous administrations) despite Fujimori’s frequent and egregious abuses of power. More surprisingly, even after the public became highly ...

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7. All the President's Women: Fujimori and Gender Equity in Peruvian Politics

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pp. 150-177

In the 1980s and early 1990s, women were almost invisible on the Peruvian political stage. By 2000, however, they were hard to miss. During Fujimori’s decenio (ten-year presidency), the adoption of gender quotas for political candidates facilitated dramatic increases in the number of women elected to municipal governments and the national legislature. ...

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8. Redirection of Peruvian Economic Strategy in the 1990s: Gains, Losses, and Clues for the Future

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pp. 178-200

Of all the varied forms of economic liberalization adopted in Latin America during the 1990s, Peru’s version was among the most thoroughgoing. If considered in terms of macroeconomic performance it was for some years one of the more successful: after three decades in which the growth of output per capita had been practically zero, the last two with ...

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9. Against the Odds: The Paradoxes of Peru's Economic Recovery in the 1990s

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pp. 201-226

The 1990 dark-horse presidential victory of the little-known, inexperienced politician Alberto Fujimori did not appear at the time to be a recipe for Peru’s sound economic recovery. The immediate context was the country’s first bout with hyperinflation and its international financial isolation that resulted from the repeated failure to stabilize the economy in ...

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10. The Often Surprising Outcomes of Asymmetry in International Affairs: United States-Peru Relations in the 1990s

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pp. 227-241

During the decade of the 1990s, United State–Latin American relations responded to four principal priorities, according to official statements: democracy and human rights, economic growth through economic liberalization and integration, reduction of poverty and discrimination, and environmentally sustainable development (U.S. Department of State ...

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11. Electoral Authoritarian Versus Partially Democratic Regimes: The Case of the Fujimori Government and the 2000 Elections

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pp. 242-267

In a series of articles titled ‘‘Elections Without Democracy?’’ published in the Journal of Democracy in April 2002 (Diamond 2002; Schedler 2002; Levitsky and Way 2002), leading scholars advanced a new regime classification: ‘‘electoral authoritarianism.’’ Schedler (2002, 47) explained that, ‘‘While democracy is ‘a system in which parties lose elections,’ ...

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12. Endogenous Regime Breakdown: The Vladivideo and the Fall of Peru's Fujimori

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pp. 268-293

I am grateful to Julio Carri

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Conclusion: The Rise and Fall of Electoral Authoritarianism in Peru

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pp. 294-318

The 1960s were years of guarded hope for Latin America, particularly in Peru. The decade was characterized by a general disposition toward mild social reform meant to tackle long-standing issues of social injustice—if only to diminish the likelihood of ‘‘another Cuba.’’ With occasional help from the United States (in the form of the Alliance for Progress), reformoriented ...

Bibliography

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pp. 319-340

Appendix: Peru, 1990–2000: A Basic Chronology

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pp. 341-344

List of Contributors

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pp. 345-348

Index

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pp. 349-362

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9780271052946
E-ISBN-10: 0271052945
Print-ISBN-13: 9780271027487
Print-ISBN-10: 0271027487

Page Count: 376
Illustrations: 5 charts/graphs, 15 tables
Publication Year: 2006