We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE
OR

Cultural Exchange and the Cold War

Raising the Iron Curtain

Yale Richmond

Publication Year: 2004

Yale Richmond records a highly significant chapter in Soviet-American relations during the final decades of Communism. He provides us with a deftly written, accurate, and thoughtful account of the cultural exchanges that were such important channels of influence and persuasion during those years. His book covers the whole spectrum-from scholars and scientific collaboration to fairs and exhibits. We should be grateful that he has undertaken this task before memories fade.-Allen H. Kassof, former Executive Director, International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX), 1968-1992Some fifty thousand Soviets visited the United States under various exchange programs between 1958 and 1988. They came as scholars and students, scientists and engineers, writers and journalists, government and party officials, musicians, dancers, and athletes-and among them were more than a few KGB officers. They came, they saw, they were conquered, and the Soviet Union would never again be the same. Cultural Exchange and the Cold War describes how these exchange programs (which brought an even larger number of Americans to the Soviet Union) raised the Iron Curtain and fostered changes that prepared the way for Gorbachev's glasnost, perestroika, and the end of the Cold War.This study is based upon interviews with Russian and American participants as well as the personal experiences of the author and others who were involved in or administered such exchanges. Cultural Exchange and the Cold War demonstrates that the best policy to pursue with countries we disagree with is not isolation but engagement.

Published by: Penn State University Press

Front Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF (3.9 MB)
 

Copyright Page

pdf iconDownload PDF (29.3 KB)
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF (34.4 KB)
pp. vii-

Abbreviations and Acronyms

pdf iconDownload PDF (25.3 KB)
pp. viii-

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF (41.0 KB)
pp. ix-x

Recent research on the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War has focused, not on the U.S.-Soviet power relationship, but rather on the emergence of ideas that led to Mikhail Gorbachev’s “new thinking.” Jeffrey Checkel has shown how international political change is driven by ideas.1 Thomas Risse- Kappen...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF (38.6 KB)
pp. xiii-xiv

What caused communism to collapse and the Cold War to come to a close? Some say it was Ronald Reagan who sullied the Soviet Union with his “evil empire” speech. Others point to Pope John Paul II and his visits to Catholic Poland, which challenged Soviet rule in Eastern Europe and ultimately the entire...

read more

1 Russia and the West

pdf iconDownload PDF (78.6 KB)
pp. 1-10

For most of its history Russia has been isolated from other major centers of world civilization.Vast distances separated it from Western Europe, the Middle East, and China. In an age when transportation was primitive and hazardous, a trip by horse-drawn coach from Moscow to Western Europe could take three months or...

read more

2 The Moscow Youth Festival

pdf iconDownload PDF (45.6 KB)
pp. 11-13

When the Soviet Union made plans to host the Sixth World Youth Festival in Moscow, its intent was to demonstrate to the world the changes that had taken place since the death of Stalin four years earlier. Previous such festivals had been held in other countries, where they had been well managed by local communist...

read more

3 The Cultural Agreement

pdf iconDownload PDF (63.2 KB)
pp. 14-20

President Dwight D. Eisenhower envisioned a people-to-people exchange, with people indeed bypassing their governments to learn more about each other. But that was not to be for many years, and in the interim, exchanges had to be negotiated and carried out by governments with their cumbersome bureaucracies and...

read more

4 Scholarly Exchanges

pdf iconDownload PDF (210.4 KB)
pp. 21-64

One chapter alone, as Allen Kassof rightly regrets, will not suffice to credit the role of scholarly exchanges in bringing about change in the Soviet Union, but I will attempt it here. As Kassof explains:...

read more

5 Science and Technology

pdf iconDownload PDF (81.3 KB)
pp. 65-76

“The scientific and academic communities traditionally have been the most pro- Western segments of Russian society,” writes Loren Graham, professor emeritus of the history of science from MIT, who studied at Moscow State University in 1960-61 under the Graduate Student/Young Faculty Exchange program....

read more

6 Humanities and Social Sciences

pdf iconDownload PDF (47.9 KB)
pp. 77-80

Another important but less well known element of U.S.-Soviet exchanges was the work of the U.S.-USSR Commissions of ACLS. Established in the mid-1970ss, the commissions facilitated direct contact in the humanities and social sciences between scholars of the two countries through joint conferences and cooperative research.1...

read more

7 Moscow Think Tanks

pdf iconDownload PDF (95.8 KB)
pp. 81-94

Until the mid-1950s the Soviet Union had no official body devoted to the study of foreign policy or international economic and political affairs. During the Stalin years, such issues were decided by the Vozhd’, the “Great Leader” himself, without the advice of experts, and at a time when there were few such experts in the Soviet...

read more

8 Forums Across Oceans

pdf iconDownload PDF (104.8 KB)
pp. 95-112

Soviet think-tank staffers and scientists participated in several forums that provided an opportunity to meet and exchange views with American scholars, scientists, and public figures. There were a number of these, which have come to be called “transnational forums,” four of which will be discussed here—Pugwash, the...

read more

9 Other NGO Exchanges

pdf iconDownload PDF (69.7 KB)
pp. 113-122

The U.S. government was the major sponsor of exchanges with the Soviet Union, but scores of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) also participated, some with and others without financial support from the U.S. government. Among them were the Alley Theater (Houston), American Bar Association, American...

read more

10 Performing Arts

pdf iconDownload PDF (55.5 KB)
pp. 123-127

The importance of cultural exchanges in international relations was recognized by George Kennan, dean of American diplomats, but Sol Hurok, the legendary American impresario, knew what the public would come to see in both the United States and the Soviet Union, and he became one of the important middlemen who...

read more

11 Moved by the Movies

pdf iconDownload PDF (56.0 KB)
pp. 128-132

Lenin was correct in predicting that the cinema would be an important medium for indoctrinating people, but the father of the Soviet state could not have foreseen the influence that foreign films would have on the Soviet public. From foreign films Soviet audiences learned that people in the West did not have to stand...

read more

12 Exhibitions—Seeing is Believing

pdf iconDownload PDF (44.8 KB)
pp. 133-135

“Better to see once than hear a hundred times,” advises an old Russian proverb, and Russians heeded that advice in thronging to see the twenty-three major exhibitions brought to the Soviet Union by USIA under the cultural agreement from 1959 to 1991. What they had heard a hundred times about the United States from...

read more

13 Hot Books in the Cold War

pdf iconDownload PDF (109.5 KB)
pp. 136-152

The knigonoshi were the book bearers of the tsarist era, Russians who traveled to the West on business or pleasure and returned home with forbidden books, often by bribing border guards to avoid government controls on the import of foreign literature. This chapter, however, is about modern knigonoshi who brought Western...

read more

14 The Pen Is Mightier . . .

pdf iconDownload PDF (69.0 KB)
pp. 153-161

Writers are respected, honored, and widely read in Russia, where they have long been regarded as the conscience of the nation. Because of the strict controls on what could be published, under tsars as well as commissars, Russian writers attempted to treat in their works subjects of political and social import that could...

read more

15 Journalists and Diplomats

pdf iconDownload PDF (74.5 KB)
pp. 162-171

Among the Russians accustomed to thinking one way but writing another were journalists and diplomats stationed outside the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, thousands of them worked in the United States and other countries around the world, and it is fair to ask if they too were influenced by their years abroad...

read more

16 Fathers and Sons

pdf iconDownload PDF (68.1 KB)
pp. 172-178

Conflict between fathers and sons is a well-known theme in the literature of many nations. Russians know it from Ivan Turgenev’s masterful novel, Fathers and Sons (titled in Russian as the more politically correct Fathers and Children). Stalin himself would have experienced such a conflict had he been alive when his daughter...

read more

17 The Search for a Normal Society

pdf iconDownload PDF (52.8 KB)
pp. 179-183

“Why do we live as we do?” was a question asked by many Soviets, all of them presumably cleared by the KGB and who visited the United States on exchanges, reports a veteran State Department interpreter who escorted many of them around the country...

read more

18 “Western Voices”

pdf iconDownload PDF (42.7 KB)
pp. 184-185

Zapadniye golosa (Western voices), as they were called, were the forbidden foreign broadcasts that Soviet citizens listened to clandestinely on their shortwave radios, straining, above the din of Soviet jammers, to hear the news and commentary from Radio Liberty, BBC, the Voice of America (VOA), the Deutsche Welle, Kol...

read more

19 To Helsinki and Beyond

pdf iconDownload PDF (52.9 KB)
pp. 186-190

When Premier Leonid Brezhnev traveled to Helsinki in the summer of 1975 to sign the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), it is not clear that he understood what he was committing the Soviet Union to do.1 The Final Act, as the conference’s concluding document is known, recognized, for the...

read more

20 Mikhail Gorbachev, International Traveler

pdf iconDownload PDF (57.4 KB)
pp. 191-196

Another young and upwardly mobile Russian for whom foreign travel was an eyeopener was Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, future member of the Politburo, General Secretary of the Communist Party, and president of the Soviet Union. A man with an inquisitive mind and a high respect for learning, Gorbachev came to...

read more

21 And Those Who Could Not Travel

pdf iconDownload PDF (43.8 KB)
pp. 197-199

Many outstanding Soviet scholars, scientists, and writers traveled to the West, but many others, equally or even more outstanding, were not permitted to travel beyond the Soviet bloc, having failed to receive the approval of the Foreign Travel Commission, a body that decided which citizens were sufficiently reliable...

read more

22 The Polish Connection

pdf iconDownload PDF (52.1 KB)
pp. 200-204

In 1968, I made a get-acquainted call on Moscow’s newly established Institute of Applied Sociological Research. Sociology had been banned in communist countries during the Stalin years, but the Soviet Union’s new leaders soon learned that sociological research, if closely controlled, could be useful in revealing the failures as well as the achievements of Soviet society...

read more

23 The Beatles Did It

pdf iconDownload PDF (54.3 KB)
pp. 205-209

The influence of the Beatles on the youth of the West is well known. Less well known is their following among the youth of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and the changes they brought about in those societies during the 1960s and 1970s in another form of cultural exchange...

read more

24 Obmen or Obman?

pdf iconDownload PDF (110.6 KB)
pp. 210-225

What a difference an “a” makes! Obmen is the Russian word for “exchange,” obman the Russian word for “deception,” and some Americans saw exchanges with the Soviet Union as deceptions... Supporters of exchanges...

read more

25 The Future

pdf iconDownload PDF (45.6 KB)
pp. 226-228

In the early years of the twenty-first century, Russia is in a new time of troubles— demographic, public health, environmental, crime and corruption, economic, and social—and there are some in the United States who believe that Russia no longer matters in world affairs. True, Russia has lost an...

read more

Afterword

pdf iconDownload PDF (32.8 KB)
pp. 229-230

One day, history may tell us who really won. If a democratic Russia emerges—why then,...

Selected Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF (66.3 KB)
pp. 231-236

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF (106.6 KB)
pp. 237-249


E-ISBN-13: 9780271052809
E-ISBN-10: 0271052805
Print-ISBN-13: 9780271025322
Print-ISBN-10: 0271025328

Page Count: 264
Publication Year: 2004