Before the Revolution
Women's Rights and Right-Wing Politics in Nicaragua, 1821–1979
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: Penn State University Press
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The story I tell in this book is a heartbreaker. I document the rise of first-wave feminism in Nicaragua during the first decades of the twentieth century and the movementâs co-optation by a U.S.âbacked dictator. I then address the reasons why so many working- and middle-class women...
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In 1979, Nicaraguans overwhelmingly supported the overthrow of the repressive and corrupt Somoza family, whoâbacked by the United Statesâ had been in power for forty-three years. Nicaraguansâ support for the leftist Sandinista guerrillas who toppled the dictatorship...
1. Feminism Before Somoza
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In 1940, teacher Josefa Toledo de Aguerri, a self-proclaimed feminist, suffragist, and advocate of womenâs education, published a series of essays entitled âFeminism and Education.â In one of them, she wrote, âOne of feminismâs characteristics is to consider it possible for woman to find in...
2. From Feminism to Partisan Suffragist Politics
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Turning to the period from the 1930s to the 1950s, this chapter examines suffragist efforts, the divisions within the suffragist movement, and the eventual dominance of partisan politics in the larger Nicaraguan womenâs movement. In addition to covering the last political battles of Josefa Toledo de Aguerri...
3. The Aftermath of Women's Suffrage
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Although the Somozas maintained themselves in power through a dictatorship, they held periodic elections, which had great symbolic value for Somocistas despite their fraudulent nature. These elections were especially important for the women supporters of the regime...
4. Somocista Women's Lives
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âLuis Somoza was my political mentor.â Those were the first words Marta GarciÌa (pseudonym) shared with me after I told her why I was interested in interviewing her. Significantly, this remark represents not only one womanâs personal experience with the Somoza family but also that of an entire...
5. The Activism and Legacy of Nicolasa Sevilla
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We cannot properly understand the Somocista womenâs movement unless we take into account Nicolasa Sevillaâs support for the Somoza regime. This chapter documents the role Sevilla played in the dictatorship. Unlike the Ala, which originated as a means to channel middle-class womenâs...
6. Sex and Somocismo
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Before the advent of the Sandinista National Liberation Front in the 1960s, the nation-building project of the Somozasâ Nationalist Liberal Party was the most inclusive ever to be promoted in Nicaragua. But it was full of contradictions for women. It incorporated women into the nationâs economic system...
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The twentieth century was marked by four major womenâs movements in Nicaragua: first-wave feminism, a Somocista womenâs movement, a Sandinista womenâs movement, and second-wave feminism. Before the Revolution deals with the first twoâand most misunderstoodâof these movements. ...
Appendix A: Union de Mujeres Americanas (UMA) Founding Members
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Appendix B: Central Women's Committee Members
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Publication Year: 2011