Authoritarian El Salvador
Politics and the Origins of the Military Regimes, 1880-1940
Publication Year: 2014
Published by: University of Notre Dame Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Acronyms and Abbreviations
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On December 2, 1931, El Salvador’s civilian president, Arturo Araujo, was deposed in a quickly executed military coup. He was replaced by his vice president, General Maximiliano Martínez.1 At the time, the 1931 coup seemed unexceptional. El Salvador and its neighboring countries...
Chapter 1: The Rules
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Leaders of newly independent nations throughout the Americas in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries faced the challenge of determining what type of governing system best suited their societies. Regardless of the examples of the United States’ break from Great Britain and of Spain’s...
Chapter 2: National-Level Networks in Conflict in the Nineteenth Century
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El Salvador was not Brazil, where independence from Portugal came with intact political institutions and a centralized government. When Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 1807, the Portuguese monarchy fled to Brazil and brought with it a complete government. Prominent Brazilians...
Chapter 3: Building Networks at the Local Level
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The last two chapters focused on jockeying at the national and regional levels, but those supramunicipal networks rested on a foundation of municipal- level alliances. This chapter turns to the municipal level, looking into the means by which municipal-level political actors built up their...
Chapter 4: Municipal Elections and Municipal Autonomy, ca. 1880–1930
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The last chapter showed how local political networks were built. This chapter looks at what those networks did on election day to gain control of municipal office. It looks at the nature of the challenge between rival networks, the tactics they used in their attempts to control voting, and the...
Chapter 5: The Network of the State
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On the eve of the presidential election of 1898, General Tomás Regalado overthrew President Rafael Gutiérrez in a quickly executed coup d’état. To participants and onlookers alike, the coup seemed a routine exercise. The insurgent was a one-time ally of the president who had grown impatient...
Chapter 6: Facing the Leviathan
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The presidential election of March 1927 arrived amidst the usual speculations: Who would President Quiñónez Molina choose as his successor? Would someone challenge him? Would there be violence? Quiñónez Molina exacerbated the incertitude by providing no hints about his preference....
Chapter 7: Politics under the Military Regime, 1931–1940
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The Araujo government lasted only ten months. It arrived amid cautious optimism about a new political process and left in ignominy, in a military coup during the first week of December 1931. In the confused aftermath of the coup, Araujo’s vice president, General Maximiliano Hernández...
Chapter 8: Populist Authoritarianism, 1931–1940
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In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, El Salvador’s economy grew rapidly under the influence of coffee. This expansion created more opportunities for some Salvadorans, but most of the rewards from coffee went to a small portion of the population. For most Salvadorans,...
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El Salvador’s modern political history can be divided into two eras, those before and after the 1931 coup that brought General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez to power. Before Martínez, El Salvador’s political system was marked by a series of dictatorships, led by both civilians and...
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About the Author
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Page Count: 496
Illustrations: 2 maps
Publication Year: 2014