State and Environment
The Comparative Study of Environmental Governance
Publication Year: 2014
Published by: The MIT Press
Series Info, Title Page, Copyright
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The study of comparative environmental politics and policy has come a long way from its beginnings in the 1970s. At the dawn of the modern environmental movement, scholars took up the fascinating question of why nations approached environmental problems in sometimes strikingly different ways. ...
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This book grew out of a conviction that the study of environmental politics has much to gain from rediscovering two central features in general political science: the state and the comparative method. In scholarship on environmental issues in recent years, the role of the state in addressing environmental problems has been overshadowed by a focus on small-scale natural resource management, ...
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The papers collected in this volume were first presented and discussed at the workshop “ Mapping the Politics of Ecology, ” held in Stockholm on June 28 – 29, 2010. This workshop was generously funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) as part of the Mapping the Politics of Ecology (MAPLE) project ...
1 Introduction: The Comparative Study of Environmental Governance
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Global environmental change is threatening prosperity and well-being in developed and developing countries alike, and environmental management is now considered a core area of state responsibility in most countries. Indeed, many states now devote substantial proportions of their public spending to environmental monitoring, protection, and restoration, ...
I Understanding Environmental Performance
2 Comparing Environmental Performance
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This chapter addresses an important theme in the study of environmental governance: the comparative assessment of environmental performance. It considers conceptual and methodological issues involved in the attempt to compare environmental performance from one period to another and from one jurisdiction to another. ...
3 Explaining Environmental Policy Adoption: A Comparative Analysis of Policy Developments in Twenty-Four OECD Countries
Christoph Knill, Susumu Shikano, Jale Tosun
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In the age of economic globalization and international cooperation, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that there exist equal global dynamics of environmental policymaking and politics. One of the implications of such global dynamics is that policy choices in one country are increasingly influenced by previous or current choices in other countries, possibly leading to cross-national policy convergence ( Bennett 1991 ). ...
4 The Three Worlds of Environmental Politics
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The classification of states as “ green states ” has received increasing attention in recent years. 1,2 To identify green states, a comparative analysis of the role of the state is most helpful because a judgment about the degree of a state ’ s greenness can be given only by comparing environmental governance. ...
5 Wind-Power Development in Germany and the United States: Structural Factors, Multiple-Stream Convergence, and Turning Points
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Renewable energy is seen as a solution to problems of anthropogenic climate change, air pollution, resource scarcity, and dependence on energy imports ( Vasi 2009 ; IPCC 2012 ). Of the various forms of renewable energy, wind-generated electricity has a unique set of advantages, which makes its potential environmental benefits especially large. ...
II Environmental Governance and Citizenship from a Comparative Perspective
6 Early Bird or Copycat, Leader or Laggard? A Comparison of Cross-National Patterns of Environmental Policy Change
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On the occasion of international environmental negotiations, like the UN Climate Summit held in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, media commentators regularly divide participating countries into leaders and laggards.1 In their periodic reviews, the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) evaluates and compares differences in the environmental performance of governments in the industrialized world. ...
7 The Role of the State in the Governance of Sustainable Development: Subnational Practices in European States
Susan Baker, Katarina Eckerberg
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This chapter investigates the role of the state in the governance of sustainable development at the subnational, regional, and local levels in Europe. It is a well-established fact that the nation-state, with its hierarchical formal bureaucracy, is no longer the sovereign power in environmental policymaking (if indeed it ever was). ...
8 Sustainable Citizenship: The Role of Citizens and Consumers as Agents of the Environmental State
Michele Micheletti, Dietlind Stolle, Daniel Berlin
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“ There is no notion more central in politics than citizenship, and none more variable in history, or contested in theory ” is how political theorist Judith Shklar (1991) explains citizenship ’ s importance as a political configuration.1 Other scholars call it a “ momentum concept ” ( Lister 2007 , 49, quoting Hoffman 2004 , 138), developing in response to societal problems. ...
III Natural Resource Management in a Comparative Perspective
9 Decentralization and Deforestation: Comparing Local Forest Governance Regimes in Latin America
Krister Andersson, Tom Evans, Clark C. Gibson, Glenn Wright
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In the last three decades, governments around the world have taken a creative approach to state building, often moving away from the traditional approach of centralization toward policies of decentralization. Indeed, the governments of most less-developed countries have decided to decentralize at least part of their natural resource governance regimes. 1 ...
10 Enforcement and Compliance in African Fisheries: The Dynamic Interaction between Ruler and Ruled
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Millions of African small-scale fishers and their families depend on fish and fishing for income and nutrition, and fish exports and licensing agreements with foreign fleets constitute an important source of foreign exchange and revenue for the cash-strapped African states. ...
11 Causes and Consequences of Stakeholder Participation in Natural Resource Management: Evidence from 143 Biosphere Reserves in Fifty-Five Countries
Andreas Duit, Ola Hall
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A central assumption in many contemporary environmental management paradigms, such as adaptive management and adaptive comanagement, is that stakeholder participation is a crucial component in successful conservation programs. As a consequence, policy prescriptions tend to focus on increasing the number of stakeholders involved in conservation efforts of various kinds. ...
12 Conclusion: An Emerging Ecostate?
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As argued in chapter 1, “ Introduction: The Comparative Study of Environmental Governance, ” studies of environmental governance can be viewed as analyses of the large-scale transformation of society ’ s relationship with nature that is currently unfolding. ...
Appendix to Chapter 8
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List of Contributors
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Page Count: 384
Publication Year: 2014