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Research Misconduct Policy in Biomedicine

Beyond the Bad-Apple Approach

Barbara K. Redman

Publication Year: 2013

Federal regulations that govern research misconduct in biomedicine have not been able to prevent an ongoing series of high-profile cases of fabricating, falsifying, or plagiarizing scientific research. In this book, Barbara Redman looks critically at current research misconduct policy and proposes a new approach that emphasizes institutional context and improved oversight. Current policy attempts to control risk at the individual level. But Redman argues that a fair and effective policy must reflect the context in which the behavior in question is embedded. As journalists who covered many research misconduct cases observed, the roots of fraud "lie in the barrel, not in the bad apples that occasionally roll into view." Drawing on literature in related fields -- including moral psychology, the policy sciences, the organizational sciences, and law -- as well as analyses of misconduct cases, Redman considers research misconduct from various perspectives. She also examines in detail a series of clinical research cases in which repeated misconduct went undetected and finds laxity of oversight, little attention to harm done, and inadequate correction of the scientific record. Study questions enhance the book's value for graduate and professional courses in research ethics.Redman argues that the goals of any research misconduct policy should be to protect scientific capital (knowledge, scientists, institutions, norms of science), support fair competition, contain harms to end users and to the public trust, and enable science to meet its societal obligations.

Published by: The MIT Press

Cover

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p. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. 2-5

Contents

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pp. 6-7

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Series Foreword

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pp. vii-viii

...I am pleased to present the thirty-eighth book in the Basic Bioethics series. The series makes innovative works in bioethics available to a broad audience and introduces seminal scholarly manuscripts, state-of-the-art reference works, and textbooks. Topics engaged include the philosophy of medicine, advancing...

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Introduction

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pp. ix-xx

...Public policy on research misconduct, which has developed contentiously in the United States and a few other countries over the past thirty years, remains largely untested as to whether it yields clearly specific outcomes; alternative policies that might reach those outcomes remain unexamined. Each widely publicized case of research misconduct creates a new scandal...

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1 Has Something Important Happened to Scientific Ethics?

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pp. 1-16

...The persistence of research misconduct reported in recent decades raises a question — does this situation represent a deterioration of ethical standards or a decline in the ability of the scientific community to self-regulate? What has happened to the “ old system ” and the ideas that guided it? Are they viable...

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2 Will Approaches from the Psychosocial and Organizational Sciences Improve Research Misconduct Regulation?

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pp. 17-36

...These sciences offer insights and suggest approaches not commonly incorporated into the regulation of research misconduct. For example, they have found clear evidence that at least some cases of research misconduct involve moral disengagement or self-deception, and that the social environment in...

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3 What Combination of Regulatory Tools Will Minimize Research Misconduct?

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pp. 37-58

...Like other areas of research ethics, research misconduct policy has developed in response to egregious cases, each of which has shaped the ongoing evolution of the regulatory system and is recorded in the history of the Office of Research Integrity...

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4 Are Current Publication Standards Protecting the Integrity of the Scientific Record?

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pp. 59-78

...Publication is an important end product of the research process, carrying significant rewards for the researchers and essential to the accumulation of scientific knowledge. At the same time, traditional mechanisms thought to control research misconduct, such as peer review and replication, are central...

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5 Lessons from Clinical Case Studies in Research Misconduct

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pp. 79-114

...Although countries are building infrastructures to deter and manage research misconduct and to anticipate its consequences, there is still a general sense that such infrastructures may not be sufficient. Each reported scandal appears as a shock that...

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6 Research Misconduct Policy, Its Evolution and Culture of Morality

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pp. 115-138

...Preceding chapters support the notion that our current treatment of research misconduct represents an early version of future regulatory policy, one that needs to further evolve. Although, at this time, countries around the world model their...

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7 The Unity of Moral Science

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pp. 139-154

...This chapter places research misconduct and its regulation in the broader context of the principal goal of science and the framework of current science policy. It shows that parallels between the three domains of ethical research regulation — research misconduct, human subjects protection, and conflict...

References

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pp. 155-178

Index

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pp. 179-184

Basic Bioethics

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pp. 185-188


E-ISBN-13: 9780262317757
E-ISBN-10: 0262317753
Print-ISBN-13: 9780262019811

Page Count: 208
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: Basic Bioethics

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Medicine -- Research -- Corrupt practices.
  • Medical scientists -- Professional ethics.
  • Medical research personnel -- Professional ethics.
  • Biotechnology -- Research.
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