Philosophy and Psychology
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: The MIT Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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The traditional problem of hallucination in the philosophy of mind, and more par-ticularly in the philosophy of perception and epistemology, has always attracted attention. However, over the last few years, neuroimaging techniques and scientific findings on the nature of hallucination, together with the upsurge of interest in new theories of perception in philosophy, such as representationalism and disjunctivism, ...
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1 The Philosophy and Psychology of Hallucination: An Introduction
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...1 The Philosophy and Psychology of Hallucination: An Introduction Few phenomena have played such a vital role in shaping philosophical theories as hallucination, particularly theories in philosophy of mind, perception, and episte-mology. When the ordinary man or woman in the street thinks of hallucination, a drug-fueled bizarre perceptual experience is conventionally what springs to mind. ...
2 Introduction to the Chapters
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This volume is broadly divided into three parts. Part I comprises scientific papers written by psychologists and neuroscientists, and Parts II and III contain philosophy papers. The chapters of Part II center on the topic of disjunctivism, and those of Part III on the relation between hallucination and nature of experience more generally. The first part begins with Dominic ffytche ’ s chapter on the “ hallucinating brain. ” ...
3 The Hallucinating Brain: Neurobiological Insights into the Natureof Hallucinations
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...3 The Hallucinating Brain: Neurobiological Insights into the Nature Charles Bonnet ’ s eighteenth-century philosophy of hallucinations was ahead of its time. Bonnet argued that hallucinations were caused by activity within specialized functional units serving both normal perception and hallucinations, a view largely supported by recent imaging evidence. Here I describe Bonnet ’ s theory and the brain activity underlying visual hallucinations that occur ...
4 Psychotic Hallucinations
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Hallucinations, especially in the auditory modality (hearing voices), are a common symptom of mental illness and are usually associated with the diagnosis of schizo-phrenia. Hence various types of hallucinatory experience — for example, audible thoughts or voices heard commenting on one ’ s actions — were famously included in the German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider ’ s (1959) list of “ first-rank symptoms ” of the disorder. ...
5 Thinking Aloud about Mental Voices
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There is a consensus that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) stem from a misattribution of inner speech to an external agency. We consider whether a developmental view of inner speech can resolve some of the problems associated with inner-speech theories. We examine neurophysiological and phenomenological evidence relevant to the issue and point up some key The recent development of the cognitive sciences has been marked by an increased ...
6 The Neuropsychology of Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson ’ sDisease and the Continuum Hypothesis
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...6 The Neuropsychology of Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson ’ s The present work investigated neuropsychological aspects of visual hallucinations (VHs) with a particular focus on hallucinations in Parkinson ’ s disease (PD). The fi rst aim was to investigate the role of different neuropsychological risk factors in development of VHs in PD. Specifi cally, the roles of medication, perception, executive functions, sleep, and personality were investigated, ...
7 Hallucinations in Hypnosis
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The nature of the hypnotic experience is discussed, drawing parallels between hypnotically induced hallucinations and those of conditions such as schizophrenia. A particularly striking parallel is highlighted: all conditions that provoke hallucinations seem to cause time distortion. Consideration is given to the processes that may underpin changes in time perception, and it is proposed that they may provide a clue to the mechanisms of hallucination. ...
II Philosophy: Reflections on Disjunctivism
8 The Multidisjunctive Conception of Hallucination
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Direct realists think that we can ’ t get a clear view of the nature of hallucinating a white picket fence : Is it representing a white picket fence ? Is it sensing white-picket-fencily ? Is it being acquainted with a white ′ picketed ′ sense-datum ? These are all epistemic possibilities for a single hallucination: after all, phenomenological refl ection suggests that the nature of that hallucination is being acquainted with a white picket fence ; but the suggestion is misleading, and we have no further ...
9 Experience and Introspection
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One central fact about hallucinations is that they may be subjectively indistinguishable from perceptions. Indeed, it has been argued that the hallucinatory experiences concerned cannot —and need not — be characterized in any more positive general terms. This epistemic conception of hallucinations has been advocated as the best choice for proponents of experiential (or “ naive realist ” ) disjunctivism — the view that perceptions and hallucinations differ essentially in their ...
10 Explanation in Good and Bad Experiential Cases
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Michael Martin aims to affi rm a certain pattern of fi rst-person thinking by advocating disjunc-tivism, a theory of perceptual experience that combines naive realism with the epistemic conception of hallucination. In this paper, I argue that we can affi rm the pattern of thinking in question without the epistemic conception of hallucination. The fi rst part of my paper explains the link that Martin draws between the fi rst-person thinking and the epistemic concep-...
11 Silencing the Argument from Hallucination
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Ordinary people tend to be realists regarding perceptual experience; that is, they take perceiving the environment as a direct, unmediated, straightforward access to a mind-independent reality. Not so for (ordinary) philosophers. The empiricist influence on the philosophy of perception, in analytic philosophy at least, made the problem of perception synonymous with the view that realism is untenable. Admitting the ...
12 Naive Realism and Hallucinations
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All visual experiences present, 1 or at least purport to present, 2 mind-independent objects and their features and so seem to relate us to those objects and their features. Suppose, for example, that you are looking at a bowl of fruit on the table in front of you. You can visually attend to those mind-independent objects — the fruit and the bowl — and note their features: their color, their shape, the way they are illuminated, ...
13 Externalism and the Gappy Content of Hallucination
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When we suffer a nonveridical hallucination, our environment seems to be a way that it is not. Because we are not perceptually related to the objects that we seem to be perceiving, we fail to refer to particulars in our environment. How should we under-stand the effects of this failure of reference? Although our hallucinatory experiences do not yield knowledge, we are arguably justified in believing that our environment ...
14 The Failure of Disjunctivism to Deal with “ Philosophers ’Hallucinations ”
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...14 The Failure of Disjunctivism to Deal with “ Philosophers ’ I restate the causal-hallucinatory argument against naive realism. This argument depends on the possibility of “ philosophers ’ hallucinations. ” I draw attention to the role of what I call the non-arbitrariness of philosophers ’ hallucinations in supporting this argument. I then discuss three attempts to refute the argument. Two — those associated with John McDowell and with Michael ...
III Philosophy: The Nature of Experience
15 Hearing and Hallucinating Silence
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Tradition has it that although we experience darkness, we can neither hear nor hallucinate silence. At most, we hear that it is silent, in virtue of lacking auditory experience. This cognitive view is at odds with our ordinary thought and talk. Yet it is not easy to vouchsafe the perception of silence: Sorensen ’ s recent account entails the implausible claim that the permanently and profoundly deaf are perpetually hallucinating silence. To better defend the view that we can ...
16 Hallucination, Mental Representation, and the PresentationalCharacter
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...16 Hallucination, Mental Representation, and the Presentational In this paper, I argue that the indirect realists ’ recourse to mental representations does not allow them to account for the possibility of hallucination, nor for the presentational character of visual experience. To account for the presentational character, I suggest a kind of intentionalism that is based on the interdependency between the perceived object and the embodied perceiver. This ...
17 Hallucinations and the Transparency of Perception
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This paper examines the way in which concepts of a low-level classifi catory kind occur in differ-ent kinds of experiences, and what happens when subjects of deceptive musical hallucinations reassess their experiences and come to realize that they are hallucinating. Drawing on this account, it is shown how it is possible for subjects to adopt different conceptual stances with respect to veridical perceptual experience. The issue of the seeming ...
18 A Sense of Reality
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Hallucinations occur in a wide range of organic and psychological disorders, as well as in a small percentage of the normal population ( Bentall, 1990 ). According to usual definitions in psychology and psychiatry, hallucinations are sensory experiences that present things that are not there but are nonetheless accompanied by a powerful sense of reality. As Richard Bentall puts it, “ The illusion of reality … is the sine qua non of ...
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Page Count: 384
Publication Year: 2013