We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Race for Sanctions

African Americans against Apartheid, 1946-1994

Francis Njubi Nesbitt

Publication Year: 2004

"An important contribution to the political history of this period [and] a must for those interested in the influence of the great pan-Africanists." -- Elliott P. Skinner

This study traces the evolution of the anti-apartheid movement from its origins in the 1940s through the civil rights and black power eras to its maturation in the 1980s as a force that transformed U.S. foreign policy. The
movement initially met resistance and was soon repressed, only to reemerge during the civil rights era, when it became radicalized with the coming of the black freedom movement. The book looks at three important political groups: TransAfrica -- the black lobby for Africa and the Caribbean; the Free South Africa Movement; and lastly the Congressional Black Caucus and its role in passing sanctions against South Africa over President Reagan's veto. It concludes with an assessment of the impact of sanctions on the release of Nelson Mandela and his eventual election as president of South Africa.

Published by: Indiana University Press

Series: Blacks in the Diaspora


pdf iconDownload PDF (36.3 KB)
pp. v-vi

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (60.9 KB)
pp. vii-x

"In this study, I examine the role of African Americans in the global anti-apartheid movement which emerged with the effort to impose economic sanctions against South Africa at the first General Assembly of the United Nations in 1946 and ended in 1994 after South Africa’s first democratic elections. I argue that although African Americans of many ideological..."


pdf iconDownload PDF (39.3 KB)
pp. xi-xii

read more

Cold War and Apartheid

pdf iconDownload PDF (213.1 KB)
pp. 1-26

"The race is on in Africa as in every other part of the world—the race between the forces of progress and democracy on one side and the forces of imperialism and reaction on the other. -Paul Robeson, 1946 We have today anti-apartheid movements in many countries playing a crucial role in the campaign against racial discrimination in South Africa.These are all fairly new, and the first of these movements, we must recall,..."

read more

The Movement against Apartheid

pdf iconDownload PDF (220.3 KB)
pp. 27-56

"The international potential of nonviolence has never been employed. Non-violence has been practiced within national borders in India and the United States and in regions of Africa with spectacular success. The time has come to fully utilize nonviolence through a massive international boycott which would involve the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Great Britain, France,..."

read more

“By Any Means Necessary”Black Power and Pan-Africanism

pdf iconDownload PDF (112.2 KB)
pp. 57-68

"If South Africa is guilty of violating the human rights of Africans here on the mother continent, then America is guilty of worse violations of the 22 million Africans on the American continent. And if South African racism is not a domestic issue, then American racism is not a domestic issue. In 1964, Malcolm X made two triumphant tours of African countries,..."

read more

“It’s Nation Time”

pdf iconDownload PDF (200.9 KB)
pp. 69-96

"Basically when we speak of Pan African Nationalism, we mean simply the knowledge that we are an African people, despite our slavery of colonization by Europeans or dispersal throughout the countries of the world. Pan Africanism is thus the global expression of Black Nationalism. . . . All black people are Africans, and that as Africans, we are bound together Racially, Historically..."

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (210.3 KB)
pp. 97-122

"We condemn the role played by the United States and other foreign corporations and banks, which by their presence and activities collectively have participated in the oppression of Blacks and have undergirded the repressive white minority governments of Southern Africa. . . . We commit ourselves to mobilizing Black Americans and others of good will to formulate and..."

read more

The Free South Africa Movement

pdf iconDownload PDF (129.9 KB)
pp. 123-137

"In my 20 years of working on this [anti-apartheid], I have never seen such a groundswell as we are currently seeing. I think one reason is that the level of resistance in South Africa has never been the way it is now. I also think there has never been a point at which the black community and particularly the leadership of the black community has been as mobilized as they currently..."

read more

The Race for Sanctions

pdf iconDownload PDF (156.0 KB)
pp. 138-156

"During . . . my first year in Congress . . . I attended a meeting of the CBC that set me on a path toward what I consider to be my single most important legislative victory: The imposition of sanctions against the racist apartheid regime in South Africa. . . . I had not gone to Congress in 1971 to take up the banner of ending apartheid, but I had been swept into the fight. More..."

read more

Dismantling Apartheid

pdf iconDownload PDF (134.3 KB)
pp. 157-172

"We not only regard Congressman Bill Gray, Ron Dellums and Trans Africa’s Randall Robinson as friends, but as brothers who have done everything expected of them to help us sustain our struggle against South Africa. . . . But it is important to say that their legislative work is not finished. The message of the ANC is that sanctions must continue against the South African government..."

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (185.1 KB)
pp. 173-195

"1. Although there were some conservatives, such as Max Yergan and George Shuyler, they were apologists for apartheid and are beyond the purview of this study. 2. Janice Love, The U.S. Anti-Apartheid Movement: Local Activism in Global Politics (New York: Praeger, 1985); George W. Shepherd Jr., Anti-Apartheid (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977); Robert Kinloch Massie, Loosing the Bonds:..."


pdf iconDownload PDF (156.4 KB)
pp. 197-211


pdf iconDownload PDF (68.2 KB)
pp. 213-217

E-ISBN-13: 9780253110688
E-ISBN-10: 0253110688
Print-ISBN-13: 9780253342324

Page Count: 232
Illustrations: 1 bibliog., 1 index
Publication Year: 2004

Series Title: Blacks in the Diaspora