A Spatial History of Religion and Society in Ireland
Publication Year: 2013
Ireland’s landscape is marked by fault lines of religious, ethnic, and political identity that have shaped its troubled history. Troubled Geographies maps this history by detailing the patterns of change in Ireland from 16th century attempts to "plant" areas of Ireland with loyal English Protestants to defend against threats posed by indigenous Catholics, through the violence of the latter part of the 20th century and the rise of the "Celtic Tiger." The book is concerned with how a geography laid down in the 16th and 17th centuries led to an amalgam based on religious belief, ethnic/national identity, and political conviction that continues to shape the geographies of modern Ireland. Troubled Geographies shows how changes in religious affiliation, identity, and territoriality have impacted Irish society during this period. It explores the response of society in general and religion in particular to major cultural shocks such as the Famine and to long term processes such as urbanization.
Published by: Indiana University Press
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List of Figures
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List of Tables
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The research that produced this book was funded by the Arts and Hu-manities Research Council/Economic and Social Research Council’s Re-ligion and Society Programme under grant AH/F008929/1 “Troubled Ge-ographies: Two Centuries of Religious Division in Ireland.” It benefited from additional support from the British Academy under grant SG090803 ...
1 Geography, Religion, and Society in Ireland: A Spatial History
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Even today, more than a decade after the Belfast or Good Friday Agree-ment, which marked an end to the Troubles, the visitor to North ern Ireland cannot help but be struck by the interplay between religion, ethnonational identity, politics, history, and geography. Protestant areas are demarked by the Union Flag (the flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North-...
2 The Plantations: Sowing the Seeds of Ireland's Religious Geographies
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The major plantations of Ireland, which were put in place during the six-teenth and seventeenth centuries, were an attempt, or a series of attempts, to establish a Protestant population from England and Scotland in Ire-land. This occurred for both po liti cal reasons—Protestant England was wor-ried about the threat that Catholic France and Spain could pose through ...
3 Religion and Society in Pre-Famine Ireland
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The first population censuses were taken in Ireland in 1821, 1831, and 1841, but while they contain geo graphi cally detailed information about the dis-tribution of the population, they did not include any information on reli-gion. The Commission of Public Instruction, Ireland, taken in 1834, does, however provide us with data on religion for this period. The Commission ...
4 The Famine and Its Impacts, 1840s to 1860s
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It has almost become a cliché to argue that Ireland’s population develop-ment over the last 150 years has been unique. It is the only developed nation in the world with a current population below that in the mid- nineteenth century and the only European country to have suffered a century of demo-graphic decline in its recent history.1 However, spatiopo liti cal qualifications ...
5 Toward Partition, 1860s to 1910s
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It is clear that the Great Famine of 1845–51 had a profound effect on Ire-land, leaving its mark on a significantly altered and diminished society. It is also clear that the Famine’s impact was not uniform across the entire island. The death and dispersal it caused were catastrophic, but the processes it set in train were just part of an ongoing demographic tragedy for Ireland. The ...
6 Partition and Civil War, 1911 to 1926
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By the beginning of the twentieth century, division had emerged as the pri-mary motif of Irish society. There were many reasons, both economic and social, for this, but their impact was to divide Catholic from Protestant both psychologically and geo graphi cally. The last all- Ireland census occurred in 1911, as Partition was to follow in 1921. The next census took place in both ...
7 Division and Continuity, 1920s to 1960s
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The Boundary Commission of 1925 confirmed the territorial settlement of Partition. Ireland would remain divided. In many ways North ern Ireland and the Irish Free State had the same central problem at the start of this period: the 1921 treaty had created two states, but it had not created two nations.1 Religious geographies had determined the spatial extents of both ...
8 Toward the Celtic Tiger: The Republic, 1961 to 2002
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Up to this point the story of the south of Ireland’s economic fortunes has been characterized by an agricultural economy blighted by stagnation and failure. From the beginning of the 1960s a series of policy changes would occur in the Repub lic that would have profound consequences for the state not simply in the economic sphere but in the social, po liti cal, demographic, ...
9 Stagnation and Segregation: Northern Ireland, 1971 to 2001
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The late twentieth century saw a stark contrast between the experiences of the Repub lic of Ireland, described in the previous chapter, and those of North ern Ireland over the same period. While the Repub lic saw rapid economic progress and a decline in religious divisions, the situation in North ern Ireland was almost the reverse. Between 1971 and 2001 North-...
10 Communal Conflict and Death in Northern Ireland, 1969 to 2001
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The conflict in North ern Ireland known as the Troubles started in the late 1960s and largely ended following the Good Friday or Belfast Agreement of 1998, although a decade later violence continued to occur, albeit at a much reduced level. The violence led to over 3,500 deaths. This could be argued to be a small fig ure, far outweighed in importance by other causes ...
11 Belfast through the Troubles: Socioeconomic Change, Segregation, and Violence
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The city of Belfast provides an illustration of much of the division and inter-dependence that have taken place in Ireland over the last two centuries. Belfast’s success as an industrial city did much to separate the economy and outlook of the Protestant northeast of Ulster from the rest of Ireland. That success had much to do with developing strong links between this part of ...
12 Conclusions: Ireland's Religious Geographies — Stability or Change?
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Figure 12.1 shows the distribution of Catholics in 1834 and compares this with their distribution in 2001/2002 as interpolated onto 1834 Church of Ireland dioceses. In many ways very little has changed: Catholics make up the vast majority of the population over much of the island with the exception of Ulster, especially east Ulster, where they are of ten a minority, ...
Notes on Methods and Literature: From Historical GIS Databases to Narrative Histories
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Page Count: 264
Illustrations: 194 maps
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: The Spatial Humanities