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The Last Century of Sea Power, Volume 1

From Port Arthur to Chanak, 1894--1922

H. P. Willmott

Publication Year: 2009

The transition to modern war at sea began during the period of the Sino-Japanese War (1894--1895) and the Spanish-American War (1898) and was propelled forward rapidly by the advent of the dreadnought and the nearly continuous state of war that culminated in World War I. By 1922, most of the elements that would define sea power in the 20th century were in place. Written by one of our foremost military historians, this volume acknowledges the complex nature of this transformation, focusing on imperialism, the growth of fleets, changes in shipbuilding and armament technology, and doctrines about the deployment and use of force at sea, among other factors. There is careful attention to the many battles fought at sea during this period and their impact on the future of sea power. The narrative is supplemented by a wide range of reference materials, including a detailed census of capital ships built during this period and a remarkable chronology of actions at sea during World War I.

Published by: Indiana University Press

Contents

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pp. vii-x

List of Maps

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xviii

Very respectfully, and in light of lengthening shadows of mortality, I would in these few lines set out two matters that together provide the raison d’être of The Last Century of Sea Power. The first matter, relating to one’s own rationale as a historian, is something that I had never committed in public, ...

Part 1. Definitions and Terms of Reference

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pp. 1-

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Introduction

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pp. 3-18

The coming of the new millennium invited any number of histories, real and alleged, constructed on the basis of noughts. It is one of the curses of history that, depending on the prejudices of the writer, either a decade or a century is an age, its counterpart an era, and that in neighboring periods there are elements of contrast that so determine character. ...

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One The Sino-Japanese War, 1894–1895

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pp. 19-27

The Sino-Japanese war, July 1894–April 1895, fits into the context discussed at the end of the introduction with one crucial exception: the racial dimension. But overall the background is provided by the obvious point of contrast: Japan, by a very deliberate process of imitation, had been able to absorb western organization ...

Appendix 1.1. The Pacific and the East Indies in the Nineteenth Century

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pp. 28-30

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Two The Greco-Turkish War of 1897

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pp. 31-36

The Greco-Turkish war of 1897, which lasted a little more than a month, is one that has all but disappeared from history books: Dupuy and Dupuy’s The Encyclopedia of Military History affords just fifty-six words and numbers to this conflict, and this would seem to be par for the course. ...

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Three The Spanish-American War of 1898

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pp. 37-49

Perhaps, at this distance in time, the most interesting aspect of the war of 1898 is American attitudes, and specifically the support afforded revolutionary cause against legally constituted and proper authority by the United States; one wonders how congressional motions of this period would be received in Washington today.1 ...

Appendix 3.1. The Actions in the Philippines and the American Order of Battle

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pp. 50-51

Appendix 3.2. The Campaign on Puerto Rico

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pp. 52-

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Four The Shifting Balance of Power

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pp. 53-61

The Sino-Japanese and Spanish-American wars in effect marked the closing of an era. The mark that the world wears is primarily a European mark. The state and the capitalist system were primarily European creations, and a global economy and global war were likewise of European pedigree. ...

Appendix 4.1. The German 1898 Building Program

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pp. 62-63

Appendix 4.2. The Boxer Rebellion and South Africa

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pp. 64-66

Part 2. From Port Arthur to Bucharest, 1898 to 1913

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pp. 67-

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Introduction

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pp. 69-73

The years between 1904 and 1922 are all but synonymous with the Anglo-German naval race and the First World War, yet this was a period that saw five major wars involving great powers and two, not one, major naval races. It was a period that opened with the Russo-Japanese War ...

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Five The Russo-Japanese War: The First Phases

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pp. 74-100

If one accepts the idea, expounded previously, that the Battle of Manila Bay was the last battle of the Age of Sail, then it would follow that the Russo- Japanese War represented the first naval war of the modern era. This conflict did not witness the employment of aircraft,1 ...

Appendix 5.1. Submarines and the Russo-Japanese War

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pp. 101-102

Appendix 5.2. The Japanese Attack at Port Arthur, 8 February 1904

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pp. 103-104

Appendix 5.3. The Second and Third Blocking Operations

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pp. 105-106

Appendix 5.4. The Order of Battle in the Action of 10 August 1904

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pp. 107-

Appendix 5.5. The Fate of Russian Ships with the 1st Pacific Squadron at Port Arthur

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pp. 108-110

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Six The Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima and Its Aftermath

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pp. 111-127

The final phase of the Russo-Japanese War was witness to three parallel sets of events, namely the culmination of the Japanese offensive into southern Manchuria that resulted in victory at the battle of Mukden (21 February– 10 March 1905), the departure (from Libau and Reval on 15 October 1904) of the Baltic force ...

Appendix 6.1. The Fate of Russian Ships with the 2nd and 3rd Pacific Squadrons

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pp. 128-129

Appendix 6.2. Japanese Warships Sunk and Damaged at the Battle off Tsushima

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pp. 130-131

Appendix 6.3. The Campaign on Sakhalin

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pp. 132-133

Appendix 6.4. The Opening of the Portsmouth Conference

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pp. 134-

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Seven The Dreadnought Naval Race

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pp. 135-148

The Russo-Japanese war was fought at a time when naval warfare was on the brink of fundamental change. From the time of the first navies action had been fought on the surface of the sea, and if this war was not the first to see the employment of the mine and torpedo ...

Appendix 7.1. British and German Battleship and Battlecruiser Programs and Construction, 1905–1914: Summary by Year

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pp. 149-150

Appendix 7.2. British and German Capital Ship Programs and Construction, 1905–1913

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pp. 151-159

Appendix 7.3. The Battleships and Battlecruisers of the Major Powers, 1905–1913

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pp. 160-164

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Eight Prelude to the First World War

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pp. 165-186

There were to be three, some would argue four, wars within Europe before the outbreak of general war in July–August 1914, and certainly the first of these, the war between Italy and the Ottoman Empire, was one that has a much-neglected naval dimension. ...

Part 3. From Sarajevo to Constantinople, 1914 to 1922

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pp. 187-

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Introduction

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pp. 189-204

Over the last eighty years, the greater part of historical attention paid to the First World War at sea has been focused on two matters, the Anglo-German confrontation in the North Sea, which inevitably largely concerned itself with the battle of Jutland, and the successive U-boat campaigns against Allied and neutral shipping. ...

Appendix Part 3. Intro.1 British Trade in the First World War

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pp. 205-

a. The Volume of Imports Entering British ports in 1913,1917, and 1918 by Commodities

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pp. 206-207

b. Cargoes and British Ports, 1913–1919

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pp. 208-210

Appendix Part 3. Intro. 2 Shipping and the Major Allied and Neutral Powers in the First World War: Gains and Losses

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pp. 211-214

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Nine The War in Northern Waters

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pp. 215-234

The outset of war provided evidence of the elements of constancy and change in naval warfare. In past conflicts British sea power had been used in three roles: to enforce the close blockade of enemy bases and ports, to clear the seas of enemy warships and trade, and to carry the war in which Britain found itself to enemy overseas possessions. ...

Appendix 9.1. The Battle off Heligoland, 28 August 1914

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pp. 235-236

Appendix 9.2. The Battles off Coronel, 1 November, and the Falklands, 8 December 1914

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pp. 237-239

Appendix 9.3. The Battle off the Dogger Bank, 24 January 1915

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pp. 240-241

Appendix 9.4. The Battle of Jutland, 31 May–1 June 1916

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pp. 242-248

Appendix 9.5. The Scale of Convoy Escorts Assigned to Various Ports, 1917–1918 and the Expansion of the British Navy between 1914 and 1918

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pp. 249-

a. The Scale of Convoy Escorts assigned to Various Ports, 1917–1918

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pp. 250-

b. The Wartime Expansion of the British Navy

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pp. 251-254

Appendix 9.6. Convoys and Losses: May 1917–November 1918

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pp. 255-257

Appendix 9.7. U-boat and Shipping Losses in the First World War

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pp. 258-

a. Total German U-boat, Aggregate Allied and Neutral, and British Shipping Losses to Enemy Action and Sinkings by German Regional Formations in the First World War

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pp. 259-262

b. German Figures Relating to the Sinkings of Allied and Neutral Merchantmen by Submarines and by Regional Commands

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pp. 263-265

Appendix 9.8 The Campaign against Shipping: High Seasand Coastal Convoy Sailings and Losses

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pp. 266-

a. Convoys to and from British Waters

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pp. 267-268

b. Coastal and Short-Haul Convoys

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pp. 269-

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Ten Tsingtao and the Dardanelles

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pp. 270-286

Passing reference was made previously to the Japanese operations on the Shantung peninsula and the western Pacific at the start of the war. These operations are ones to which one must return to provide a proper account of proceedings and the context regarding the difficulties of choice that Allied powers faced at this time. ...

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Eleven Naval Support of Operations in Africa

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pp. 287-294

In terms of the war outside European waters there were four Allied undertakings in Africa, of which three proved difficult and protracted. The exception was the campaign that saw British and French forces secure Togo, which was literally over in a matter of days. ...

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Twelve Action in the Baltic

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pp. 295-301

One of the stranger features of the war at sea during the First World War is the relative effectiveness of the Russian fleets in the Baltic and Black Seas and a quality of performance that contrasts very sharply with the Russian naval performance just ten years before in the Japanese war. ...

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Thirteen The Black Sea, Otranto Strait, and Other Matters

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pp. 302-318

The black sea in the First World War was very much a secondary theater of operations. For Russia the naval priority had to be the Baltic and the military priority necessarily had to be the German sector of the front between the Baltic and Galicia, while for Turkey the immediate priority always had to be the Dardanelles and the eastern Mediterranean. ...

Appendix 13.1 “Other” German Units outside European Waters

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pp. 319-320

Appendix 13.2 Russian Destroyer and Torpedo-Boat Losses in the Baltic and Black Seas

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pp. 321-322

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Fourteen The Legacy of the First World War

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pp. 323-344

The end of the First World War is given one of two very precise dates, either 11 November 1918 with the conclusion of the armistice or 28 June 1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. In reality, the signing of the various treaties that were to end the First World War was to prove a protracted process and other conflicts flowed from this war, ...

Appendix 14.1 Warship and Auxiliary Losses, 1914–1918

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pp. 345-

a. Tabular Representation of Warship and Auxiliary Losses of the Allied and the Central Powers, 1914–1918

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pp. 346-347

b. Battleships and Battlecruisers Lost in the Course of the First World War

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pp. 348-349

Appendix 14.2 The Arrival of British Imperial and Dominion Formations in Europe

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pp. 350-352

Part 4. Not So Much Finis as . . .

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pp. 353-

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Conclusion

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pp. 355-359

The Last Century of Sea Power in its original form was to have examined naval events, and specifically wars at sea, between the Sino-Japanese War and the present time, but in the writing of this first part two possible subtitles recommended themselves: ...

Appendix Conclu.1 The Battleships, Battlecruisers, Aircraft Carriers, and Cruisers with the British Navy, 1913 and 1935

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pp. 360-368

Chronology of the First World War at Sea

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pp. 369-442

Notes

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pp. 443-496

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 497-508

General Index

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pp. 509-530

Index of Warships, Auxiliaries and Merchantmen, and Submarines

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pp. 531-543


E-ISBN-13: 9780253003560
E-ISBN-10: 0253003563
Print-ISBN-13: 9780253352149

Page Count: 568
Illustrations: 17 b&w photos, 18 maps
Publication Year: 2009