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The Shoah in Ukraine

History, Testimony, Memorialization

Edited by Ray Brandon and Wendy Lower

Publication Year: 2008

On the eve of the Nazi invasion of the USSR in 1941, Ukraine was home to the largest Jewish community in Europe. Between 1941 and 1944, some 1.4 million Jews were killed there, and one of the most important centers of Jewish life was destroyed. Yet, little is known about this chapter of Holocaust history. Drawing on archival sources from the former Soviet Union and bringing together researchers from Ukraine, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States, The Shoah in Ukraine sheds light on the critical themes of perpetration, collaboration, Jewish-Ukrainian relations, testimony, rescue, and Holocaust remembrance in Ukraine.

Contributors are Andrej Angrick, Omer Bartov, Karel C. Berkhoff, Ray Brandon, Martin Dean, Dennis Deletant, Frank Golczewski, Alexander Kruglov, Wendy Lower, Dieter Pohl, and Timothy Snyder.

Published by: Indiana University Press

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Maps

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pp. vii-

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-

This volume originated in a Summer Research Workshop held at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1999. Since that initial gathering, the editors sought out additional contributors who were doing groundbreaking research on the Holocaust in Ukraine. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-22

Before the Second World War, the Jews of Ukraine constituted one of the largest Jewish populations in Europe.1 They were without a doubt the largest Jewish population within the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.2 And between July 1940 and June 1941—after Stalin occupied the interwar Polish territories ...

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I • The Murder of Ukraine’s Jews under German Military Administration and in the Reich Commissariat Ukraine

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pp. 23-76

From the moment the German armed forces entered Ukraine on June 22, 1941, the Jews of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the largest Jewish minority in the Soviet Union, faced near certain death. In the 18 months that followed, the Germans, together with their allies and satraps, killed almost every Ukrainian Jew ...

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II • The Life and Death of Western Volhynian Jewry, 1921–1945

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pp. 77-113

Henryk Józewski, governor of Poland’s eastern province of Volhynia in the interwar years, remembered Volhynia’s Jews as he saw them in the village of Kolky (Polish, Kółki), during the good times. The village, as Józewski recalled, was “cut off from people and the world.” ...

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III • Shades of Grey: Reflections on Jewish-Ukrainian and German-Ukrainian Relations in Galicia

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pp. 114-155

“The Ukrainians were the worst!” This sentiment or something similar is often mentioned by Holocaust survivors when they reflect on their tormentors in concentration camps and ghettos during the Second World War. Latvian and Lithuanian police and guards sometimes rank equally in terms of brutality, ...

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IV • Transnistria and the Romanian Solution to the “Jewish Problem”

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pp. 156-189

In recent years, a number of studies of Transnistria have appeared in Romania, among the most notable being Jean Ancel’s three-volume work Transnistria, published in Romanian in 1998, which painstakingly reconstructs the fate of the Jews deported from Bessarabia and Bukovina ...

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V • Annihilation and Labor: Jews and Thoroughfare IV in Central Ukraine

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pp. 190-223

When Reinhard Heydrich announced on January 20, 1942, at what we now call the Wannsee Conference, that the further emigration of Jews from German-occupied Europe would be suspended due to the war, and that the Jews would instead be “evacuated” to the east, a large part of Soviet Jewry had already been killed. ...

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VI • “On Him Rests the Weight of the Administration”: Nazi Civilian Rulers and the Holocaust in Zhytomyr

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pp. 224-247

The Nazis developed sinister, utopian plans for exploiting Ukraine’s natural and human resources, and in their view, these plans were absolutely essential to secure the Reich’s future. The continued sustenance of the German Army and people was seen to depend on grain, livestock, and other agricultural products from Ukraine, ...

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VII • Soviet Ethnic Germans and the Holocaust in the Reich Commissariat Ukraine, 1941–1944

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pp. 248-271

In late spring 1942, after only a few months of service with the po- lice in Ustynivka Precinct (Rayon) in Nazi-occupied southern Ukraine, Ernst Hering, a 19-year-old ethnic German native of the area, was asked to participate in the shooting of Jews from his home region.1 ...

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VIII • Jewish Losses in Ukraine, 1941–1944

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pp. 272-290

A key component of the Nazis’ plans for achieving global domination was an antisemitism that had as its strategic goal the universal, physical eradication of Jews around the world. This aim represented the most important and most consistent element of Nazi ideology and policy between 1933 and 1945. ...

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IX • Dina Pronicheva’s Story of Surviving the Babi Yar Massacre: German, Jewish, Soviet, Russian, and Ukrainian Records

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pp. 291-317

The largest single Nazi shooting of Jews in the Soviet Union occurred on September 29 and 30, 1941, on the western outskirts of Kiev in a large ravine known as Babi Yar. The occupying German army and SS and police forces began planning and implementing measures against the local Jews ...

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X • White Spaces and Black Holes: Eastern Galicia’s Past and Present

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pp. 318-354

Galician history began in Kievan Rus and, after a 750-year odyssey, this region is today once again part of a state ruled from Kiev. In between the destruction of Kievan Rus in 1241 and the constitution of independent Ukraine in 1991, Galicia changed hands numerous times. Becoming a part of the Polish crown lands in 1349, ...

Comparative Table of Ranks

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pp. 355-356

Map Sources

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pp. 357-358

Selected Supplemental Bibliography

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pp. 359-362

Contributors

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pp. 363-366

Index

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pp. 367-378

Back cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9780253001597
E-ISBN-10: 0253001595
Print-ISBN-13: 9780253350848

Page Count: 392
Illustrations: 23 b&w illus., 8 maps
Publication Year: 2008