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The Rise of the Chicago Police Department

Class and Conflict, 1850-1894

Sam Mitrani

Publication Year: 2013

In this book, Sam Mitrani cogently examines the making of the police department in Chicago, which by the late 1800s had grown into the most violent, turbulent city in America. Chicago was roiling with political and economic conflict, much of it rooted in class tensions, and the city's lawmakers and business elite fostered the growth of a professional municipal police force to protect capitalism, its assets, and their own positions in society. Together with city policymakers, the business elite united behind an ideology of order that would simultaneously justify the police force's existence and dictate its functions.

Published by: University of Illinois Press

Series: The Working Class in American History


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pp. C-ii


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pp. iii-vi


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pp. vii-viii

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pp. ix-x

T_his book owes an enormous intellectual debt to those historians who have already written the history of Chicago and its class relations, especially Rich-ard Schneirov and John Jentz. T_heir excellent work informed the questions I would also like to especially thank Richard John. He provided f_irm guid-ance when necessary, and let me f_ind my own way when that was more ...

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pp. 1-13

On August 2six.oldstyle, 1seven.oldstylesix.oldstylefive.oldstyle, a crowd holding him responsible for the Stamp Act at-tacked the Boston home of Massachusetts lieutenant governor and chief justice T_homas Hutchinson. T_he attackers spent the entire night sacking Hutchinson?s mansion, carrying of_f his valuables, and using axes to dismantle the wooden portions of the building. Hutchinson and his family f_led and survived with-...

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Chapter 1. Drunken Immigrants, Businessmen's Order, and the Founding of the Chicago Police Departmen

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pp. 14-33

On April 21, 1eight.oldstylefive.oldstylefive.oldstyle, an angry crowd of German immigrants assembled at Chi-cago?s court house on Clark Street between Randolph and Washington. T_hey loudly demanded that the court release nineteen imprisoned saloonkeepers. Ten had been arrested for refusing to pay the new dollar.oldstylethree.oldstyle00 liquor license fee, up from dollar.oldstylefive.oldstyle0, and nine had been arrested for serving alcohol on Sundays.uniF6DC ...

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Chapter 2. Paternalism and the Birth of Professional Police Organization

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pp. 34-56

On March 12, 1eight.oldstylefive.oldstylesix.oldstyle, the Chicago Tribune declared: ?[Mayor Dyer?s] promises to the rapscallions who electioneered for him, who secured him the fraudu-lent votes to which he owes his election, who stood for him at the polls to overawe opposition and bully the timid, must be kept.? Dyer was the Demo-cratic candidate for mayor, supported by many of the city?s workingmen and ...

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Chapter 3. The Police and the First May Day Strike for the Eight-Hour Day

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pp. 57-71

In the period af_ter the Civil War, a new working class emerged in the United States. On the one hand, the nation?s economy increasingly relied on wage workers in factories and mills, on the railroads and construction projects, and in lumberyards and mines. Owners and managers sought to strip control over the production process from skilled artisans and direct it themselves to ...

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Chapter 4. The Native-Born Protestant Elite's Bid for Control in the 1870s

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pp. 72-100

During the 1eight.oldstyleseven.oldstyle0s, it became increasingly clear that the promise of ?free labor? would not be met. Rather than an expanding economy of small proprietors, the North was becoming more and more divided along class and ethnic lines. New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, and other cities were full of immigrant working men who were not about to become the free laborers of ...

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pp. 101-111

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Chapter 5. 1877 and the Formation of a Law-and-Order Consensus

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pp. 112-133

T_he massive strikes that erupted in 1eight.oldstyleseven.oldstyleseven.oldstyle marked a turning point for the Chicago Police Department. T_he department?s role in putting down these strikes illustrates most clearly how the Chicago police reconciled democratic politics with the industrial capitalist order through violence. In these strikes, the most dramatic and disorderly they had yet to confront, the police ap-...

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Chapter 6. Carter Harrison Remakes the Chicago Police Department

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pp. 134-165

T_he events of the 1eight.oldstyleseven.oldstyle0s set the stage for an unprecedented strengthening of the police department in the f_irst half of the 1eight.oldstyleeight.oldstyle0s. At the beginning of that decade, the police force was undermanned and lacked legitimacy among the bulk of Chicago?s population. Elite observers continued to excoriate the police for corruption and inef_f_iciency, while working-class Chicagoans had good ...

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Chapter 7. Chicago's Anarchists Shape the Police Department

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pp. 166-184

T_he Chicago Police Department was transformed by its struggle with the city?s anarchist and socialist movement in the 1eight.oldstyleseven.oldstyle0s and 1eight.oldstyleeight.oldstyle0s.uniF6DC T_his struggle was distinct from the department?s interaction with the wider labor move-ment and the working class generally. As previous chapters have shown, the relationship between the police and the city?s working class was complex, ...

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Chapter 8. The Eight-Hour Strikes, the Haymarket Bombing, and the Consolidation of the Chicago Polic

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pp. 185-207

T_he Haymarket bombing forever changed what it meant to be a member of the Chicago Police Department. It gave the police their own set of martyrs and made being a patrolman meaningful in a way that gradual pay raises and merit awards could not. It made clear what the forces of law and order were defending civilization against. Most importantly, Haymarket and its ...

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Epilogue: The Pullman Strike and the Matrix of State Institutions

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pp. 208-218

T_he upheaval of 1eight.oldstyleeight.oldstylesix.oldstyle was not the last important labor struggle that accom-panied the rise of a wage labor economy in the United States. In 1eight.oldstylenine.oldstylefour.oldstyle, the Pullman strike erupted. It was the largest and most important strike of the nineteenth century, and its epicenter was in Chicago. It thrust the question of order back on the national stage. T_his strike revealed as a failure George ...


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pp. 219-246


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pp. 247-262

E-ISBN-13: 9780252095337
Print-ISBN-13: 9780252038068

Page Count: 288
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: The Working Class in American History