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Making the March King

John Philip Sousa's Washington Years, 1854-1893

Patrick Warfield

Publication Year: 2013

John Philip Sousa's mature career as the indomitable leader of the United States Marine Band and his own touring Sousa Band is well known, but the years leading up to his emergence as a celebrity have escaped serious attention. In this revealing biography, Patrick Warfield explains the making of the March King by documenting Sousa's early life and career. Covering the period 1854 to 1893, this study focuses on the community and training that created Sousa, exploring the musical life of late nineteenth-century Washington D.C. and Philadelphia as a context for Sousa's development. Warfield examines Sousa's wide-ranging experience composing, conducting, and performing in the theater, opera house, concert hall, and salons, as well as his leadership of the United States Marine Band and the later Sousa Band, early twentieth-century America's most famous and successful ensemble. Sousa composed not only marches during this period but also parlor, minstrel, and art songs; parade, concert, and medley marches; schottisches, waltzes, and polkas; and incidental music, operettas, and descriptive pieces. Warfield's examination of Sousa's output reveals a versatile composer much broader in stylistic range than the bandmaster extraordinaire remembered as the March King. Warfield presents the story of Sousa as a self-made business success, a gifted performer and composer who deftly capitalized on his talents to create one of the most entertaining, enduring figures in American music.

Published by: University of Illinois Press

Cover

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pp. C-ii

Title

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pp. iii-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

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pp. ix-xii

...2. Sousa?s parents, Antonio and Elisabeth, ca. 1865 seven.oldstyleseven.oldstyle. Sousa?s Marine Corps enlistment, 18seven.oldstyle2 2220. The Marine Band in a casual pose, probably at the constitutional 23?25. Three views of Sousa?s Marine Band, ca. 188seven.oldstyle?91 1seven.oldstyle4, 1seven.oldstyle5, and 1seven.oldstyle62seven.oldstyle. The cover of a program from the Marine Band?s 1891 tour 186...

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xiii-xiv

I.sc have had the pleasure of getting to know a large number of librar-ians, archivists, collectors, enthusiasts, and scholars since I f_irst began work on the career of John Philip Sousa in 2001, and I thank them all. Most of the primary source materials directly related to this study are held by the Library of Congress, the University of Illinois, and the United States Marine ...

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Prelude. A Triumph on the Waves

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pp. xv-xx

A.scustin C.scorbin opened his Manhattan Beach Hotel on the Fourth of July 18seven.oldstyleseven.oldstyle. From the resort?s seemingly endless veranda near the eastern edge of Coney Island, overnight guests could enjoy carefully manicured lawns and cool ocean breezes before retiring to lavishly decorated rooms. All of this pleasure was reaped while safely isolated from the island?s seedier west-...

Part I. The Apprentice

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Chapter One. A Capital Boyhood

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pp. 3-24

T.schere is no truth to the rumor that John Philip Sousa was born in England as Sam Ogden and immigrated to the United States with luggage bearing his initials and destination: ?S. O., U.S.A.? This popular story, which continues to be heard even today, was the work of Sousa?s most ambitious press agent, Colonel George Frederick Hinton. Never one to let a good gim-...

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Chapter Two. Into the Pit

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pp. 25-48

D.scescribing the salaries of M.scarine B.scand musicians in 1885, Sec-retary of the Navy William Whitney explained that ?the compensation provided by the Government is based somewhat upon the supposition that enlisted musicians will supplement their Government pay from pri-vate employment.? That government income has always been dependent ...

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Chapter Three. A Nineteenth-Century Musical Career

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pp. 49-64

I.scn many w.scays the historical John Philip Sousa has been the victim of the March King?s incredible success. He is today fully his stage name: a musician known only for a handful of three-minute works written for en-sembles of winds alone. It is true that Sousa?s greatest artistic achievements came in the form of marches and that his public fame was secured from the ...

Part II. The Professional

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Chapter Four. The Centennial City

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pp. 67-99

S.scousa had promised B.scenj.scamin S.scw.scallow.sc that he would leave Wash-ington for two years, prove himself f_inancially, and return to marry Emma May. Choosing a career in music may never have been the safest way to achieve this goal, but by 18seven.oldstyle6 Sousa was a well-trained journeyman capable of f_inding work in a theater orchestra, traveling show, or publishing f_irm. By the ...

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Chapter Five. A Presidential Musician

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pp. 100-123

Band in 18seven.oldstyle3, Louis Schneider had been a proud musician: he of_ten boasted of his days with Napoleon III?s Royal Band, Theodore Thomas?s orchestra, Patrick Gilmore?s ensemble, and Adelina Patti?s tour, and by all accounts he prominently wore the medals awarded to him by such admirers as the king of Italy, the emperor of France, and the pope. Despite his exalted r?sum?, ...

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Chaper Six. Civilian Music in Washington

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pp. 124-146

I.scn D.scecember 1880 the G.scerman violinist August Wilhelmj pre-sented a concert in Washington?s Lincoln Hall. The press fawned: ?The exqui-site production of beautiful echoes and rapid variations of sound which he gives is simply a wonder of delight to lovers of music. He holds the audience in a trance.? Entranced along with the rest of the audience was the eight-year-...

Part III. The March King

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Chapter Seven. America's Court Composer

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pp. 149-179

I.scn 1898 the Musical Courier declared: ?It is Sousa in the band, Sousa in the orchestra, Sousa in the phonograph, Sousa in the hand organ, Sousa in the music box, Sousa everywhere. The American composer is the man, not of the hour or of the day, but of the time!? Such claims for Sousa?s reach into American culture were commonplace by the late 1890s, but they ...

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Chapter Eight. Making the Sousa Band

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pp. 180-225

E.scduard S.sctrauss w.scas busily preparing for a tour of the New World in the spring of 1890. He had largely taken over the family dynasty and was now looking to capitalize on the popularity of his last name in the United States. A transatlantic excursion was no minor undertaking, but Strauss had been convinced to make the journey by a former Minnesota secretary of state ...

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Chapter Nine. Theater on the Bandstand

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pp. 226-262

J.scohn P.schilip S.scousa?s music is today almost unavoidable as it travels across the American soundscape, appearing on concert programs, at sport-ing events, during patriotic celebrations, in f_ilms, and in advertisements. For the modern listener this Sousa is all and only the March King, a view that, at least in part, is in keeping with the historical record. Af_ter their success at ...

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Epilogue: Marching Along

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pp. 263-272

O.scn M.scay 14, 189seven.oldstyle, J.scohn P.schilip S.scousa and his band of f_if_ty musicians arrived in Philadelphia, where they were scheduled to begin a series of three concerts at the Academy of Music. The arrival of the celebrated ensemble coincided with that of William McKinley, and both the president and the March King were in town to celebrate the dedication of Rudolf Siemering?s ...

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NOTES

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pp. 273-296

LCSC John Philip Sousa Collection, Music Division, Library of CongressNARA National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.SACAM Sousa Archives: A Center for American Music, University of Illinois1. Dreiser, Color (1923/198seven.oldstyle), 122. Despite an outward generosity toward mixed social classes, Corbin did not welcome everyone, and in 18seven.oldstyle9 he gained some un-...

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 297-312

...? Becket Family Diaries and Prompt Books. Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Annual Reports from the Washington Public Schools. Sumner School Archives. Concordia United Church of Christ Records, 1833?2003. Historical Society of David Blakely Papers. Manuscripts and Archives Division. New York Public Li-Felsengarten Collection (Theodore and Rose Fay Thomas). Rosenthal Archives. ...

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INDEX

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pp. 313-340

...1seven.oldstyleseven.oldstyle, 1seven.oldstyle8?seven.oldstyle9, 189, 192, 263?Ah Me!? (Sousa), seven.oldstyle5, seven.oldstyle9, 83, 84, 280n15Arch Street Theatre (Philadelphia), seven.oldstyle3, seven.oldstyle9, Berlioz, Hector, seven.oldstyle1, 122, 1seven.oldstyle8, 185, 189entertainment focus of, 4seven.oldstyle, 51, seven.oldstyle4, 84, ...


E-ISBN-13: 9780252095078
Print-ISBN-13: 9780252037795

Page Count: 336
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: Music in American Life