Publication Year: 2003
Published by: University of Illinois Press
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About the Series, Title Page, Copyright
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This work was made possible by an outside studies program granted byMonash University during the second half of 1997. I was a visiting scholar inthe School of Education and Professional Development at the University ofEast Anglia during that period, and I wish to express my gratitude to colleaguesthere, and in particular David Bridges, for their hospitality and support. Ac-...
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Paul Rée is a figure remembered today for his friendship with and philo-sophical influence on another writer: Friedrich Nietzsche. To a lesser extent,he figures in biographies of Lou Andreas-Salomé, again as a personal and in-tellectual influence during a particular period of her life. Yet Rée is of interestin his own right as a writer and thinker. He was not only a pioneer in the ap-...
Part 1: Psychological Observations
On Books and Authors
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Aphorisms are a thought concentrate that anyone can expand for them-Such a writing style is to be recommended. In the first place, it is not veryeasy to express a real stupidity in a short, pithy way. For it cannot hide itselfbehind few words nearly as well as behind many. In any case, the great quan-The value of an aphorism cannot be judged by its author until he has...
On Human Actions and Their Motives
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Observing the motives for his behavior is useless for the practical per-son, indeed disturbing and harmful to his activity, but very useful for the the-Every action arises out of a mosaic of motives without our being able totell from how much egoism, vanity, pride, fear, benevolence, etc., it is com-posed. The philosopher cannot, like the chemist, apply a quantitative and...
On Women, Love, and Marriage
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It is characteristic of first love that we do not understand how otherpeople before us could have loved, since they had no knowledge of the onlyFew have loved. With most, a mixture of sensuality and vanity occupiesEvery wife prizes most highly the qualities in men that are lacking in herEvery wife is unhappy with her husband and knows another man with...
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So-called good company tends to be bad company to itself, and viceTo maintain oneself easily on the surface of the social element, one mustnot have a greater specific gravity than this element. Otherwise one sinks un-One pronounces the name of the person introduced more clearly theWe emphasize differences in status in relation to persons who stand only...
On Religious Things
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Belief and disbelief are not moral qualities, but only opinions.Should we be condemned by God to the eternal torments of hell becauseour God-given intelligence finds divine revelation obscure and incredible?The orthodox hate the free spirits because they are afraid of being re-Whoever is given a ministry by God is also given the political and reli-...
On Happiness and Unhappiness
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The worst thing that can happen to someone who enjoys reflecting onThe head destroys our illusions, but the heart always rebuilds them.Even the smallest care is accompanied by the illusion that we would bePeople commonly bear a small misfortune worse than a great one, sincethey surrender themselves to it fully; whereas they do not fully surrender them-...
Essay on Vanity
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For two reasons, it is not a matter of indifference to people whether oth-ers take them to be good or bad, clever or stupid, good-looking or ugly, pooror rich, friendly or unfriendly: (1) because they are self-interested, and so hopefor advantages from a good opinion and are afraid of disadvantages from abad opinion; or (2) because they are vain, so that a good opinion (i.e., being...
Part 2: The Origin of the Moral Sensations part 2 The Origin of the Moral Sensations
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The point of view of this essay is a purely theoretical one. Just as thegeologist begins by seeking out and describing different formations and theninquires into the causes from which they have arisen, so too the author hasbegun by taking up moral phenomena from experience, and has then gone intothe history of their beginning, as far as his abilities allowed....
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Moral philosophy is concerned with human actions. At the outset it statesthat certain actions are felt as good, others as bad; that bad actions often giverise to remorse; that on account of the so-called sense of justice we demandThese moral phenomena are often considered to be something supersensi-ble—the voice of God, as the theologians put it. In his essay Religion within...
Chapter 1: The Origin of the Concepts“Good” and “Evil”
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Every person combines two drives within himself, namely, the egoisticThrough the egoistic drive he strives for his own welfare, above all his ownpreservation, the satisfaction of his sexual instinct, and the satisfaction of hisThe satisfaction of each of these particular forms of the egoistic instinct canpossibly do harm to the welfare of other people; for instance, to preserve one’s...
Chapter 2: The Origin of Conscience
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Once the distinction had been established between egoistic behavior asbad and non-egoistic behavior as good, people set out to impress it upon chil-Today too this distinction is forced into us from childhood. We constantlyhear the selfless person praised and the egoist condemned. The books we readand the plays we see present the same opposition; finally we are directly taught...
Chapter 3: Responsibility and Freedom of the Will
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Remorse differs according to whether whoever feels it bears in mind theFirst of all, some people think the human will is free, but Hobbes, Works,ed. Molesworth, vol. IV, p. 239 et seq.; cf. also his De Homine, chap. IX; Spino-za, Ethics, First Part, prop. 32; Second Part, last scholium; Leibniz,* in partic-ular his Theodicy, I, 166, 167; Wolff, Psychologica empirica, para. 889 ff., esp. 925;...
Chapter 4: The Origin of Punishment and theFeeling of Justice: On Deterrence andRetribution
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We discussed the origin of punishment already in chapter 1. We saw therethat the welfare and peace of all makes its existence necessary. In fact, if pun-ishment did not exist, if it disappeared at this moment, then each person wouldsnatch as much of the property of others as could be acquired by force, with-out concern for their happiness or indeed life. The other passions too, such as...
Chapter 5: The Origin of Vanity*
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It is not a matter of indifference to us whether others have a good or badopinion of us for two main reasons: (1) because we are self-interested, and sohope for advantages from a good opinion, and are afraid of disadvantages froma bad opinion; (2) because we are vain, so that a good opinion is itself pleas-Vanity thus has a positive and a negative aspect: we hope for a good opin-...
Chapter 6: Moral Progress
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Moral progress occurs when people become better, that is, less egoistic,in the course of time. This can happen in two ways: through natural selection,that is, through the survival (in the struggle for existence) and reproductionof those individuals who are the most non-egoistic, or of those tribes thatcontain the greatest number of non-egoistic individuals; or through the fre-...
Chapter 7: The Relation of Goodness to Happiness
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By a “good person” is meant, as we have already explained, the one whoThe question now arises whether this character is a source of happiness forthe person who has it; whether the good person has a prospect of gainingIn answering this question, it clearly depends on whether those in whosefate the good person is interested are happy or unhappy: if they are happy, his...
Review and Conclusion
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When we examine our moral sense, we find that we praise as a goodperson someone who refrains from harming others or takes care of them outof benevolence, while we condemn as a bad person anyone who does harm toothers out of selfishness or vanity (e.g., a desire for vengeance). In addition,we describe as irrational (weaknesses, errors, vices) those qualities and drives...
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Page Count: 240
Publication Year: 2003
Series Title: International Nietzsche Studies