Cover

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Frontmatter

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CONTENTS

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pp. vii-viii

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FOREWORD

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pp. ix-xii

"Since 1776, roughly 230 years ago, extraordinary men and women have represented the United States abroad under all kinds of circumstances. What they did and how and why they did it remain little known to their compatriots. In 1995 the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training (ADST) and Diplomatic and Consular Officers, Retired (DACOR) created the Diplomats and Diplomacy book series to increase public knowledge and ..."

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CHAPTER 1. Clinton’s Pledge

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pp. 3-15

"It was a Saturday in March of 1993—March 13, 1993, to be exact—and the snow outside fell in a steady hiss. A solidly built gray-haired man in a cream-gold Acura cursed his bad luck. He could barely see five feet in front of him as he skidded from one side of I-95 to the other. Time seemed to be suspended in the magical white world beyond his windshield. He ..."

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CHAPTER 2. Welcome to Haiti

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pp. 16-27

"The sky outside was a calm, reassuring blue. Special Advisor Lawrence Pezzullo returned to the article in his lap and the words of a prominent Haitian psychiatrist: 'You might find us resigned or unrealistic, but that may be because, as people of all social categories will tell you, this is not the real world.' "

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CHAPTER 3. From Slavery to Independence

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pp. 28-36

" 'Things have got to change here,' said Pope John Paul II in his Address to the Haitian Nation in March 1983. He was referring to the fact that the western third of the isle of Hispaniola was (and continues to be) the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. Indeed, few countries in the world can point to a present and future as alarmingly bleak ..."

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CHAPTER 4. Working with the UN

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pp. 37-51

"On the afternoon of March 30, 1993, Special Advisor Lawrence Pezzullo entered the Situation Room of the White House. He had been back in Washington one week. Since his return from Port-au-Prince, Pezzullo had crisscrossed the capitol talking to congressmen, senators, and fellow diplomats from the Organization of American States (OAS). All had expressed optimism that the focused intent of the Clinton..."

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CHAPTER 5. Early U.S.-Haitian Relations

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pp. 52-59

"From the beginnings, the United States and Haiti have had an intense relationship defined by often-contradictory pushes and pulls. Like most relationships between people or peoples, it has had to navigate the magnetic fields of their respective expectations and fears. In the case of Haiti that fear has been foreign domination and dependency; in the ..."

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CHAPTER 6. UN Sanctions

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pp. 60-76

"It’s safe to say that every foreign policymaker in the U.S. government was familiar with the phrase: Those who don’t know history are condemned to repeat it. But the past history of U.S.-Haitian relations was not something that seemed to interest them in early 1993. Instead, White House policymakers were hell-bent on scoring a quick foreign ..."

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CHAPTER 7. The First U.S. Occupation

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pp. 77-85

"In the beginning we were glad to see the marines,” recalled Haitian teacher Franck Henniques years after the first U.S. occupation of Haiti ended in 1934. But that sentiment would soon change.1 And, Jim Crow racism and U.S. insensitivity to Haitian culture would inspire a ..."

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CHAPTER 8. Governors Island

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pp. 86-106

"The night of June 16, 1993, had been a turning point in the effort of the international community to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. Hours after the United Nations Security Council passed a ground-breaking resolution imposing a tough economic embargo against the de facto military government of Haiti, UN/OAS envoy Leandro Despouy ..."

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CHAPTER 9. The Fall of Baby Doc

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pp. 107-118

"Ask a Haitian to explain the turbulent political climate in his or her country and chances are he or she will tell you that the country is still emerging from the creepy graveyard of Papa Doc Duvalier. 'Think of us as a whole society suffering from battered-wife syndrome,' said the daughter of an army colonel who fled the country in the early sixties.1"

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CHAPTER 10. The New York Pact

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pp. 119-131

"The ink was barely dry when Artisade's advisors started complaining that the Haitian president was 'not at all comfortable' with the terms of the Governors Island Agreement.1 They wanted the United States and the international community to forcibly remove the high command of the Forces Armées d’Haiti (FADH). The UN/OAS special envoy Dante Caputo called it 'the immaculate conception' scenario. The ..."

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CHAPTER 11. The Rise and Fall of Aristide

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pp. 132-148

"The presidential campaign of 1990 was borne on the wings of the popular movement that had gathered steam in the late eighties. This loose federation of priests, students, political parties, peasant groups, and union activists had protested, rioted, and suffered imprisonment, torture, and martyrdom for the right to have a voice in their own political future. Finally, in March 1990 with the resignation of General Prosper Avril, a ..."

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CHAPTER 12. Reconciliation

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pp. 149-164

"The New York Pact signed by forty-odd Haitian politicians at one o’clock on Saturday morning, July 17, 1993, called for 'a political truce to guarantee a smooth and peaceful transition.' It was the fi rst step toward implementing the Governors Island Agreement signed by President Aristide and General Raoul Cédras only two weeks earlier. "

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CHAPTER 13. Prime Minister Malval

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pp. 165-180

"Publisher Robert Malval was one of the first people to call President Aristide after he had been ousted in September 1991 and was living in exile in Venezuela. Malval urged his friend to mobilize the international community to restore him to office. But now as the international effort was bearing fruit in the form of an agreement signed by General ..."

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CHAPTER 14. Steps toward Aristide’s Return

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pp. 181-194

"Throughout September 1993 and into the first days of October, U.S. special advisor to Haiti Lawrence Pezzullo spent most of his time shuttling between President Aristide and the Clinton administration, trying to get them both to complete the steps that had been agreed upon at Governors Island. Although this was ostensibly what both of them wanted, he encountered resistance from both sides."

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CHAPTER 15. The Harlan County Incident

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pp. 195-208

" 'There are some important things that happened in Haiti that the Agency and the press never picked up,' said Mike Kozak. Two weeks before the Harlan County was scheduled to arrive in Port-au-Prince, Kozak, Despouy, and Caputo had a meeting with a group of Haitian senators that included Alliance senator Julio Larosiliere. 'They told us that ..."

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CHAPTER 16. Dissension in Washington

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pp. 209-220

" 'There is something peculiarly Roman in the air in Haiti,' wrote British novelist Graham Greene in The Comedians. 'Roman in its cruelty, in its corruption and its heroism.' In October 1993, the assassination of Guy Malary, the corruption of the Haitian military, and the heroism of ..."

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CHAPTER 17. The Resignation of Malval

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pp. 221-230

"While Prime Minister Malval was at UN headquarters telling Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali that 'the idea of a national conference has no meaning without President Aristide’s support,'1 President Aristide and his advisors were huddled in the President’s Georgetown office thinking of ways to trip him up. According to Aristide advisor Bob ..."

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CHAPTER 18. The Parliamentarians’ Plan

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pp. 231-243

"The Four Friends aide memoire delivered to both President Aristide and General C

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CHAPTER 19. President Clinton Changes Policy

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pp. 244-256

"In late December, Ellen Cosgrove of the U.S. embassy in Port-au-Prince noticed that an old man who repaired rubber tires in her neighborhood had disappeared. A few months later, Cosgrove ran into his daughter and asked: 'Where have you been? And what happened to your father?'1..."

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CHAPTER 20. Carter/Powell/Nunn

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pp. 257-270

"On April 27, 1994, President Clinton announced that he would ask the UN Security Council to adopt a tough package of economic sanctions against Haiti’s military rulers. In addition to calling for a curb on international travel, he said he would push for a freeze on the military leaders’ foreign assets and cancellation of their credit cards."

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EPILOGUE. History Repeats Itself

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pp. 271-272

"Approximately three years after he was ousted from power, President Jean Bertrand Aristide returned to Haiti. On October 15, 1994, as thousands of Haitians jammed the streets around the Presidential Palace, President Aristide alighted from a U.S. helicopter, greeted gathered dignitaries including the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Secretary of State ..."

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CONCLUSIONS. Lessons Learned

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pp. 273-279

" 'He [President Clinton] is like a kid who jumps from a 7th-story window ledge into a fi reman’s net,' wrote Washington Post columnist David S. Broder on September 20, 1994, the first day of the U.S. military intervention in Haiti. 'After you know he’s not cracked his skull, you have to ask: ‘What the hell was he doing on the ledge?’1..."

NOTES

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pp. 280-304

INDEX

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pp. 305-312