Cover

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Title Page

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Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xi

The research for this book began with a set of simple questions. If basic needs such as food, housing, and health care were so central to human survival and dignity, why were they discredited for so long in the West? Why, after all these years, were nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) beginning to accept the validity of freedom from poverty as a basic human right? Does this new trend have the potential to change the practice of human rights and our approach to extreme poverty?

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Chapter 1. NGOs and Freedom from Poverty

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pp. 1-16

Human rights advocacy in the West is changing. New issues are being promoted, which extend beyond the relatively narrow range of civil and political rights that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) historically fought for. New organizations are joining in the fight, using concepts and methods not traditionally considered “human rights” advocacy.

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Chapter 2. A Social Theory of Human Rights

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pp. 17-30

In Chapter 1, I briefly described the historical process whereby subsistence rights (and indeed, nearly all economic, social, and cultural rights) were assigned a secondary status within the Western human rights movement during the Cold War. I discussed the ideology behind separating human rights into two categories—that economic and social rights were inherently positive, expensive, and nonjusticiable...

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Chapter 3. Human Rights Organizations

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pp. 31-70

The purpose of this chapter is to trace efforts in recent years by Western human rights organizations1 to redeem economic and social rights, particularly subsistence rights, from their decades-long status as the “poor stepsister” to civil and political rights.2 I will discuss the increasing adoption of subsistence rights by the human rights movement, ongoing resistance to subsistence rights,...

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Chapter 4. Social Justice Organizations

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pp. 71-103

While the adoption of subsistence rights among traditional human rights organizations has been well publicized, the increasing incorporation of human rights rhetoric into the campaigns of social justice groups represents a quieter but equally significant trend.1 The importance of the social justice movement should not be surprising, as Neil Stammers argues, because...

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Chapter 5. Humanitarian Organizations

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pp. 104-130

While social justice groups have adopted economic and social rights rather quietly, the incorporation of human rights into the work of Western humanitarian NGOs 1 over the past decade has arrived with much fanfare. The diverse and multifaceted trend among humanitarian NGOs has coalesced into a single label: the use of a “rights-based approach” to development work.

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Chapter 6. Using a Social Theory to Interpret NGO Efforts

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pp. 131-142

This book seeks to explain the recent increase in Western NGOs’ work to achieve freedom from poverty, and to understand its meaning for human rights politics more broadly. Subsistence rights, as a subset of economic and social rights, had been delegitimized, opposed, or ignored within the West for decades, in large part due to a particular understanding of human rights that defined them as legal instruments protecting individuals against government interference.

Appendix: NGOs Working for Freedom from Poverty

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pp. 159-157

Notes

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pp. 159-196

Bibliography

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pp. 197-212

Index

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pp. 213-216

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 217-218

I am deeply grateful for the years of support, challenge, and intellectual stimulation that I received at the School of International Service at American University. SIS, led by Dean Louis Goodman, richly deserves its reputation as one of the elite graduate schools in international relations in the world. The faculty and staff at SIS who contributed directly or indirectly to this work are too numerous to mention,...