To Export Progress
The Golden Age of University Assistance in the Americas
Publication Year: 2005
"An immensely valuable and detailed analysis of foreign, mainly American, assistance to Latin American higher education, To Export Progress provides an understanding of the 'what' and the 'why' of foreign aid to a key sector. This book will be a classic in its field." -- Philip G. Altbach, Monan Professor of Higher Education, Boston College
"Professor Daniel C. Levy, a leading authority in the field of higher education and the nonprofit sector in Latin America, once again has opened an otherwise neglected field through his carefully researched and reported study of philanthropic support for university reform in the region. Drawing on a wealth of archival material, documentary evidence, interviews, and first hand experience with the actors and agencies involved, To Export Progress illuminates the vision and ideals inspiring international agencies, as much as the realities they confronted in deciding on grants and loans policy, from the 1960s to the 1980s. The book is strongly recommended for scholars and students of international education, for Latin American experts, and for philanthropic managers and educational administrators in the developing world." -- Jorge Balan, Senior Program Officer for Higher Education, The Ford Foundation.
In this study of the attempts to export the modern Western university, its ideas, and its form to the Third World, Daniel C. Levy examines the development assistance provided by the Ford Foundation, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Inter-American Development Bank and their relations with local partners in Latin America in the 1960s and 1970s. Levy considers the funders, how they selected partners, which countries and institutions were favored, and to what effect. Based on meticulous research and careful analysis, the book provides a detailed look at philanthropic assistance to the region during the era of modernization and development in Latin America.
Published by: Indiana University Press
Preface and Acknowledgments
I wish I could thank someone for helping me finish this book expeditiously, but I do not regret the long haul. Research began over twenty years ago, in recognition of a crucial dimension hitherto missing from my work, the international dimension. My research on Latin American higher education had been mostly comparative as it dealt with government-university relations and ...
List of Acronyms
Introduction: To Export Progress
The middle of the twentieth century brought an unprecedented peacetime crusade by industrialized nations to transform the Third World. This was probably modern history’s most ambitious, organized, nonmilitary effort to export progress—to provide less developed countries with resources, ideas, and expertise to enable them to leap forward.1 The leap was simultaneously ...
One: Perspectives on Change
This chapter looks to broad literatures on change to help us explore and interpret information on the golden age of university assistance. In return, our findings should contribute fresh material for the study of change. The philanthropic ideal type of change can be adapted to three literatures that help orient us in studying reform goals, efforts, and results. These are ...
Two: Givers and Receivers
This chapter looks at the chief exporters and importers. It identifies and analyzes the major actors, at a macro level, on both the giving and receiving ends during the crusade to transform the Latin American university and, through it, to promote national development. On the giving side, that means analysis of the principal foundation, bilateral donors, and multilateral donors. On the receiving side, it means a comparison of Latin American nations. ...
Three: Modernizing the System: Diversification and Expansion
Selectivity among nations was only the first layer of donor targeting for exporting progress. Assistance directed itself more to the institution than to the nation, though the two were linked and certain nations had more attractive institutions. This chapter looks inside nations to see how, including how successfully, donors promoted the restructuring modernization of university ...
Four: Institution Building: Centralizing the University
The pluralist U.S. export model was to guide institutions as well as systems. Reform required institutions capable of charting their own effective course. Higher education development would depend more on choices made and executed by individual institutions than on corporatist-standardized policy for all. Autonomous institutions should be strong institutions. They carry ...
Five: Academic Work
Academic work was the core concern for university assistance. Structural reforms of systems and individual institutions—the concerns of the previous two chapters—were largely to serve the cause of good academic work. Improved academic work was the central direct goal for foundations and other donors, whatever visions they entertained about thereby also promoting ...
Six: Promise and Performance in Exporting Progress
Our view of the crusade to export progress through universities has been reasonably positive. Worthy tasks were undertaken with intelligence, and much good was done. That bottom-line performance fell far short of grand expectation is no surprise. A wide gap between promise and performance is common in policy reform. Similarly, reality rarely matches ideal types exactly; ideal types are to help us understand reality, and such understanding ...
Detailed Table of Contents
Page Count: 424
Illustrations: 2 figures, 1 bibliog., 1 index
Publication Year: 2005
Series Title: Philanthropic and Nonprofit Studies
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