Front Cover

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Foreword

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pp. vii-viii

As a think tank with a “dot.edu” rather than “dot.org” domain name in cyberspace, Brookings takes especially seriously its commitment to work on educational issues. We do so largely through the work of our Brown Center and the expertise of Tom Loveless. I am proud to introduce the latest in a long series of high-quality, high-impact products of the Brown Center. The first international study of student academic achievement was carried...

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Acknowledgments

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p. ix

Both the conference and book were supported by the National Science Foundation under grant 0608013, “Proposal for an International Conference on Mathematics: Analyses of IEA Studies in Mathematics; November 9–11, 2006; Washington, D.C.” Additional support from the National Center for Education Statistics is gratefully acknowledged. At Brookings Institution Press, Marty Gottron and Starr Belsky copyedited the...

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1: Introduction: Secondary Analysis of Data from International Assessments

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pp. 1-7

International tests in mathematics are famous for their horse race appeal: to find out the highest-scoring countries, the lowest-scoring countries, and for the citizens of any particular country, how its students rank against the rest of the world. Much more can be learned from analyzing the vast amount of data collected in international assessments. This book examines data from the math tests administered by the...

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2: TIMSS in Perspective: Lessons Learned from IEA's Four Decades of International Mathematics Assessments

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pp. 9-36

International comparative studies of educational achievement had their origins in what is now known as the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS). FIMS was the first venture of the fledgling International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), the organization that pioneered international assessments of student achievement. Although FIMS was conducted principally between...

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3: Understanding Causal Influences on Educational Achievement through Analysus of Differences over Time within Countries

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pp. 37-63

The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) was founded in 1959 by a small group of education and social science researchers with the purpose of using international comparative research to understand the great complexity of factors influencing student achievement in different subject fields. A popular metaphor was that they wanted to use the world as an educational laboratory....

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4: Lack of Focus in the Mathematics Curriculum: Symptom or Cause

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pp. 65-84

Two reports, released in conjunction with the original TIMSS (Third International Mathematics and Science Study) in 1997, analyzed the curriculum component of the study and offered one significant explanation for the relatively poor performance of U.S. students in mathematics.1 The data indicated that the U.S. curriculum typically covered more topics at each grade level than did that of any other...

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5: U.S. Algebra Performance in an International Context

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pp. 85-126

In this chapter we use data on how students performed on mathematics items in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) to explore some effects of the setting in which U.S. students learn algebra. We begin by describing characteristics that make the U.S. school mathematics curriculum fundamentally different from that of other countries. We locate these characteristics in their historical...

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6: What Can TIMSS Surveys Tell Us about Mathematics Reforms in the United States during the 1990s

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pp. 127-174

Throughout the 1990s, a number of mathematics reforms were introduced in kindergarten through grade twelve throughout the United States. Many of these reforms were influenced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), which published national standards for mathematics curriculum and instruction, and by the National Science Foundation, which funded the development of curriculum materials...

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7: School Size and Student Achievement in TIMSS 2003

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pp. 175-204

School size is an interesting aspect of educational organization and has been a major topic of discussion in the past decades, both in academia and in politics, for two reasons. First, school size could have an impact on operational costs. Increased size might reduce redundancy and allow more resources to be bundled together at the individual school. This, in turn, could lead to cost savings and lower per pupil spending in larger...

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8: Examining Educational Technology and Achievement through Latent Variable Modeling

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pp. 205-225

The use of computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics appears to be increasing exponentially year by year. Consequently, the amount of research on the relationship between computer use and achievement has been exponentially increasing as well. This trend is reflected by the change in how the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) has approached the computer-achievement...

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9: Comparisons between PISA and TIMSS— Are We the Man with Two Watches?

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pp. 227-261

In 2002 and 2003 a strange thing started to happen in the United Kingdom. Government ministers and senior civil servants praised schools’ attainment— praise, moreover, based on the results of international studies. The permanent secretary at the Department for Education and Skills wrote, “For those doubters who constantly seek to run down (our education performance), we now have the OECD/PISA study—the biggest ever international ...

Contributors

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p. 263

Index

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pp. 265-275