Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Frontmatter

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. vii

List of Illustrations

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. ix

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xii

Several institutions provided support at different stages of the research. The Humanities Center at Wayne State University funded research at the Archives Africaines and the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Brussels and Tervuren, Belgium. The Career Developments Chairs offered funds that freed me of teaching, allowing me the time for writing. ...

read more

Introduction: Naming and African Voices

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-20

The naming of strangers was a long-established naming convention in Central Africa, which Africans creatively adapted to the colonial situation to identify individual Europeans and groups of Europeans. Despite the singularity of events and diversity of situations that motivated the naming of Europeans, the practice worked broadly the same way ...

read more

1. The Dynamics of Naming in Precolonial Congo: An Overview

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 21-31

A detailed analysis of precolonial naming traditions of Central Africa and the Congo is a monumental undertaking that falls beyond the preoccupations of this chapter. This is not because such work is impossible to do. Designed to prepare readers to grasp the continuity of precolonial naming conventions in naming Europeans, the chapter is ...

read more

2. Colonialism and the Village World: Contexts to Naming

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 32-52

The integration of the Congolese village world into the economies of the Congo Free State and Belgian Congo through rubber collection, compulsory cash crop cultivation, and supply of labor was repressive and exploitative, even if one takes the view that a few Congolese villagers benefited from the early ivory boom.1 The local administrations ...

read more

3. Naming, Colonialism, Making History, and Social Memories

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 53-78

Discourse on colonialism tended to portray colonial encounters as a one-sided process marked solely by military campaigns directed against groups to colonize.1 Although bellicosity was the epicenter of the colonial encounters, as this widespread image suggests, Congolese groups and Europeans were constantly engaged in many interactions. Some ...

read more

4. Early Naming, Explorations, Trade, and Rubber Collection

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 79-91

The Brussels Conference of 1876, which launched "explorations" to Central Africa, brought Portuguese, Italian, and German explorers to interact with Congolese, whose cultural, economic, and political ideas were different from their own. These explorations only diversified the interactions of Congolese with foreigners because Congolese in Uele ...

read more

5. Naming and Belgian Colonial Rule

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 92-118

This chapter documents critiques of colonialism by Congolese villagers through naming. It argues that accusations of assaults on the village world, violence, exploitation of women, and intrusion of colonialism into everyday life expressed sufferings, anger, resentments, and protests. Although the chapter pays attention to different categories of names ...

read more

6. Talking under One's Breath: Praise Names as Strategic Ambiguities

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 119-135

Praise naming was a longstanding tradition in the Congo designed to celebrate events, families, communities, and corporate groups, and to mark achievements of leaders and ordinary individuals. Praise naming was also surreptitiously duplicitous because speakers paired flattering remarks with negative messages to create strategic ambiguity and convey ...

read more

7. Confronting African Voices: Negotiations and Instrumentalization of Names

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 136-156

Most colonial officials recognized that their local names were voices of village communities and expressed protests, wishes for negotiation, accusations of suffering, and even praise. Based on my own research, this chapter documents various ways colonial officials confronted these voices. The first part of the chapter is a brief discussion of ...

read more

Conclusions

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 157-162

This book pursues two basic objectives, one methodological, the other epistemological or conceptual. Methodologically, I show that the meanings of names given to explorers, missionaries, state officials, and agents of companies conveyed substantial information about colonial rule, local situations, and colonial material conditions created by colonialism. ...

Sample of Names Used in This Work

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 163-170

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 171-196

Works Cited

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 197-212

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 213-220