Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xi

A Note on Conventions

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pp. xiii-xiv

Chronologies

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pp. xv-xvi

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1. The Rhetoric of Politics and the Politics of Rhetoric

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pp. 1-23

During the late Northern Song dynasty, factional infighting divided the empire’s sociopolitical elite into ministerial coalitions that battled for executive authority over the central government bureaucracy. At the imperial court in Kaifeng, officials formed factional...

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2. Frames of Reference: Classical Hermeneutics and Historical Analogism

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pp. 24-41

Political theorists and rhetoricians of the Northern Song were not free to define and redefine faction and factionalism as they saw fit, for they chose their terms according to pre-existing linguistic rules and built their claims upon established intellectual foundations. Trained as classical...

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3. Categorical Propositions: Faction Theory and the Political Imagination of the Northern Song

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pp. 42-71

In 4.1044, the state councilor Fan Zhongyan (989–1052) stood accused of factionalism, confronting the unreceptive Emperor Renzong (r. 1022–1063), who had a proclivity toward issuing admonitory edicts to his officials about the dangers of factionalism and toward purging ministers...

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4. Unified Theories of Division: Factional Rhetoric in the Reform Era, 1069–1085

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pp. 72-98

Well into the third year of his councilorship in 9.1072, Wang Anshi securely controlled the reins of government, with the earned trust of Emperor Shenzong and a coalition of loyal subordinates. When he debated the connections between border tensions and court factions...

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5. The Closed Circle: Factional Rhetoric in the Antireform Era, 1085–1093

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pp. 99-125

In the fifth month of 1089, former Grand Councilor Cai Que (1037–1093) confronted a predetermined verdict as the target of a poetic inquisition.1 Ever since his fall from power during the antireformist takeover of 1085–1086, Cai had been relegated to prefectural administration...

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6. Retributive Justice: Factional Rhetoric in the Post-Reform Era, 1094–1104

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pp. 126-160

Repeating the poetic inquisition against Cai Que measure for measure, the Korean Relations Institute (Tongwen guan) investigation of 1097 was designed to entrap the banished leaders of the antireform opposition.1 As in 1089, a Censorial cabal trumped up charges against former...

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7. Discourses of Authority and the Authority of Discourse

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pp. 161-180

This study has reconstructed a missing chapter from Song political and intellectual history by illuminating the linguistic rules that governed the writings of faction theorists and factional rhetoricians and by explaining the ideological and institutional causes and effects of the late Northern Song...

Notes

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pp. 181-234

Glossary

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pp. 235-245

References

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pp. 247-261

Index

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pp. 263-273

About the Author

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p. 274