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Islam in an Era of Nation-States

Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim Southeast Asia

Robert W. Hefner

Publication Year: 1997

The renewal of the Muslim faith, which has occurred not only in Asia but in other parts of the world, has prompted warnings of an imminent "clash of civilizations" between Islam and the West. Islam in an Era of Nation-States examines the history, politics, and meanings of this resurgence in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines and explores its implications for Southeast Asia, the larger Muslim world, and the West. This volume will be of interest to students of Islam, Southeast Asian history, and the anthropology of religion. In examining the politics and meanings of Islamic resurgence, it will also speak to political scientists, religious scholars, and others concerned with culture and politics in the late modern era.

Published by: University of Hawai'i Press


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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-viii

In recent years scholars in the fields of Southeast Asian and Islamic studies reflecting on the distinctive situation of Muslims in Southeast Asia have enlisted the help of colleagues working on Islam in other parts of the world. Many people have been part of that dialogue, which, for those of us involved in the creation of this book, intensified with a series of ...


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Chapter 1 Islam in an Era of Nation-States: Politics and Religious Renewal in Muslim Southeast Asia

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pp. 3-40

Ours is a time in which visions that animated an earlier era have faded, while those that will shape the coming age remain unclear. The most obvious causes of this world-changing transformation were the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the end of the cold war. In the aftermath of these events, the Western media were full of commentaries ...

Part I The State and Civic Identities

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Chapter 2 Appreciating Islam in the Muslim Philippines: Authority, Experience, and Identity in Cotabato

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pp. 43-73

More than twenty years of attempts to elucidate the Islamic identity of Philippine Muslims have produced scant illumination. Those efforts, undertaken by a wide range of analysts, have been concerned almost exclusively with determining the origins and essence of an ethnoreligious ...

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Chapter 3 Islamization and Democratization in Indonesia

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pp. 75-127

One of the most remarkable developments in Indonesian politics in recent years has been the rapprochement of the post-1966 “New Order” government with important segments of the Muslim community. Prior to the decade of the 1990s, many foreign specialists of Indonesia were convinced that the Suharto government was a resolute defender ...

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Chapter 4 Traditionalist Islam and the State in Indonesia: The Road to Legitimacy and Renewal

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pp. 129-153

Since the 1980s one of Indonesia’s oldest and largest Islamic organizations, Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), has attracted increasing attention. Nahdlatul Ulama (Ar., “Rise of Muslim Scholars”) was created in 1926 as a reaction against Muslim reformists who opposed the ulama’s authority in the interpretation of religious texts and law, and who condemned popular ...

Part II Reformers and Reformism

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Chapter 5 Modern Intentions: Reshaping Subjectivities in an Indonesian Muslim Society

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pp. 157-181

In the aftermath of the cold war, some in North America have found their next enemy in Islam, an Islam construed to be monolithic and antimodern. Replacing the clash of economies is a clash of civilizations: the secularized West versus overreligious Islam. This dichotomy rests on a particular construction of what it is to be modern, a construction that arose ...

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Chapter 6 The Ahmadiyya Movement in Simunul: Islamic Reform in One Remote and Unlikely Place

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pp. 183-206

A century ago, Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, a student of Islam, warned his colleagues in the Netherlands East Indies Civil Service that Islam in Indonesia, “which seemed so static, so sunk in a torpid medievalism, was actually changing in fundamental ways, but these changes were so gradual, so subtle, so concentrated in remote, and, to non-Islamic minds, ...

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Chapter 7 Identity Construction, Nation Formation, and Islamic Revivalism in Malaysia

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pp. 207-227

One of the most perceptive recent observations on the relationship between religion and the modern nation-states in East and Southeast Asia appeared in an essay by Keyes, Hardacre, and Kendall (1994). The authors observed that the complex relationship between religion and nation formation has often engendered what they called a ...

Part III Ordinary Muslims

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Chapter 8 “Ordinary Muslims” and Muslim Resurgents in Contemporary Malaysia: Notes on an Ambivalent Relationship

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pp. 231-273

Recent scholarship on Islam in Malaysia has focused on Malaysia’s Islamic resurgence and the ways in which Malay Muslim reformers and modernists conceptualize their moral communities and visions of and for the future (see, for example, Kessler 1980; Shamsul A. B. 1983; Nagata 1984; Chandra Muzaffar 1987; Muhammad Abu Bakar 1987; Zainah ...

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Chapter 9 Islamization and the Reshaping of Identities in Rural South Sulawesi

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pp. 275-306

Ever since the pioneering studies of Snouck Hurgronje (1893– 1895), Indonesian Islam and the processes of social change with which it is connected have been recognized as topics of extraordinary complexity. Recent studies have only served to confirm this impression, revealing enormous diversity within, for example, Javanese Islam, let alone that of the various Muslim peoples throughout the whole of the archipelago. ...


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Chapter 10 Islam in Contemporary Southeast Asia: History, Community, Morality

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pp. 309-320

The broad themes that resonate throughout this collection are ones shared by many societies in recent times. They reflect the extent to which religious symbols and issues have come to the fore in public life and provide a language for issues of citizenship, ethnicity, shared histories, and morality. Thus, even what might be thought to be intimate issues of family ...


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pp. 321-322


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pp. 323-327

E-ISBN-13: 9780824863029
Print-ISBN-13: 9780824819019

Publication Year: 1997

OCLC Number: 45733383
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Islam in an Era of Nation-States

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Subject Headings

  • Islam and world politics.
  • Islam -- 20th century.
  • Islam and state -- Southeast Asia.
  • Islamic fundamentalism -- Southeast Asia.
  • Southeast Asia -- Politics and government -- 1945-.
  • Islam and politics -- Southeast Asia.
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