Contents

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p. xi

Illustrations

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p. xiii

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvii

This study covers the forty-year period 1920–1960. It is concerned with aspects of the social and political history of members of the Royal Papuan Constabulary and the New Guinea native police forces when they were at the peak of their careers, and when Australian rule was confident and expanding. It is not a comprehensive history of the Royal ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xx

In the course of researching and writing the thesis on which this book is based, I received very generous help and encouragement from many people and institutions. Without them, completion would not have been possible. I am grateful to Professor Hank Nelson of the Pacific and Asian History Division, Research School of Pacific Studies at the Australian National University, for his guidance, patience, constant ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-18

For most villagers during the period of Australian rule in Papua New Guinea, the government was a white field officer and a troop of eight or so policemen. In Papua, unless there was a risk of attack from villagers, it was government policy to restrict personnel on government patrols to one European officer, eight to ten policemen, and enough bearers to carry essentials to last the estimated period of patrol.

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Chapter 1 The Role of the Patrol Officer in Papua New Guinea

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pp. 19-41

The patrol officer system was a powerful instrument of administration, whose establishment resulted from the British, Australian, and German colonization of Papua New Guinea. It was a system not unlike other institutions established by colonial powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to administer subordinated people.

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Chapter 2 Recruitment of Police

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pp. 42-84

Thousands of Papua New Guinea men served as policemen in the Papuan Armed Constabulary and the New Guinea police force from the forces’ inception in the 1890s, according to the total yearly establishment figures for the period. The Papuan Armed Constabulary Ordinance of 1890 and a similar declaration in German New Guinea in 1896 made provisions for the recruitment of men between seventeen and forty years of age.

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Chapter 3 Training

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pp. 85-109

The history of police training in Papua New Guinea falls into five phases. Some of these are not particularly distinctive, but are demarcated for the convenience of discussion and to indicate the beginnings of changes that may have continued over time. During the first phase, no legislation allowed for a police force in either possession, a situation that ended in Papua in 1890 and in New Guinea in 1896.

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Chapter 4 Policemen at Work

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pp. 110-137

By 1913, when Headquarters Officer Nicholls of the armed constabulary was writing, the police had established a tradition of excellent work that spanned twenty-three years. The message in Nicholls’ calculated assessment is clear. The responsibilities of the armed constabulary were many and varied; their contribution in all facets of native administration was without equal.

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Chapter 5 The Use of Force

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pp. 138-163

In chapter 1 some possible rationales are offered for the establishment of a police force in the colonial context, and why it was necessary for the police, as an instrument of the colonial regime, to use force. Before examining the degree of force that a Papua New Guinean policeman was legally allowed to use during the course of his work, some general factors must be considered.

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Chapter 6 Police Involvement in the World Wars

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pp. 164-203

Tribal wars in Papua New Guinea did not extend beyond broad geographical and linguistic boundaries. Alliances tended to join together particular clans rather than unite all peoples within a particular culture group. However, refugees from wars have been known to migrate to more distant places, into the territories of people who were not related to them by culture or language but who had established some link, perhaps through trade.

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Chapter 7 Perceptions of the Police by Goilala Villagers, Papua

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pp. 204-222

Much has been written about the reactions, or lack of them, of Papua New Guineans when they saw white men and other Papua New Guineans for the first time. Ample literature describes the relationships experienced once the traumas of the first contact were overcome and colonialism became established. The material on first contact has echoed with a familiar ring. None has failed to mention the novelty of the meeting.

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Chapter 8 Perceptions of the Police by Gende Villagers, New Guinea

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pp. 223-243

I interviewed Tawi at Orobomarai village (Gende, Bundi) in 1985 on the last leg of my highlands field trip. Because this was more than fifty years after first contact, it is again important to keep in perspective the dangers of misreporting. However, Tawi is regarded as the custodian of his clan’s traditions because of his ability to remember and narrate stories of his clan’s past.

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Chapter 9 Officers’ Perceptions of the Police

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pp. 244-263

From primary and secondary source materials, two quite different conclusions are drawn about European officers’ views of the policemen and the assessments of their performances. The distinction, however, is arbitrary, and at no stage did the differences of opinion extend to other areas of administration. One represented the views of white officers who had some dealings with the policemen in an official capacity and, in almost all cases, from a great distance.

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Conclusion

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pp. 264-269

On 6 November 1987 the Papua New Guinea Post Courier published an eye-catching obituary on Kamuna Hura: “Highlands trail-blazer dies as a . . . forgotten man of Papua New Guinea history!” (Meava 1987). Kamuna, with Jim Taylor, was in the forefront of many significant expeditions into the highlands in the 1930s, and a witness to many subsequent momentous events in Papua New Guinea’s history (Radford 1987, 100; Sesiguo 1977, 227ff). His daughter grieved, “My father died a lonely death without anybody knowing.

Appendix 1 Response of Rick J Giddings to Questionnaire

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pp. 271-284

Appendix 2 Interview with Sir John Guise

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pp. 285-308

Appendix 3 Interview with Petrus Tigavu

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pp. 309-319

Appendix 4 Interview with Sasa Goreg

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pp. 320-334

Appendix 5 Interview with “Wizakana” Tawi

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pp. 335-353

Appendix 6 Kegeriai’s Eyewitness Account of Tawi’s Ordeal

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pp. 354-355

Notes

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pp. 357-373

Glossary of Tok Pisin Words

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pp. 375-376

References

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pp. 377-403

Index

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pp. 405-414