Intermediate Sanctions in Corrections
Publication Year: 2004
Published by: University of North Texas Press
In the past two decades, states and the federal government have developed and implemented new correctional options in an attempt to reduce correctional crowding and costs, better manage higher-risk offenders in the community, reduce crime, and achieve greater fairness and effectiveness in criminal sentencing for adults. These innovations are referred to as intermediate sanctions programs and are the subject...
Criminal justice in the United States involves three interdependent agencies—law enforcement, courts, and corrections—operating at the federal, state, and local levels. Together, these agencies represent the criminal justice system. Although with distinct lines of funding, rules, standards, procedures, and organizational structures, these agencies must work together in the processing of criminal cases. This process is traditionally characterized by a model developed by the President’s...
Prior to the 1980s, the standard sentencing options for judges consisted of probation or incarceration. Although community-based programs, such as probation, restitution, community service, and halfway houses, were available in the 1960s and 1970s, they lost credibility and support mainly because they were shown to be ineffective in a number of ways (Tonry, 1997). It was not until the early 1980s as correctional crowding...
Intensive Supervision Programs, the most popular intermediate sanctions in the United States, provide for closer monitoring and surveillance of offenders than is possible with regular probation and parole. An intensive supervision program (ISP) is a more enhanced and restrictive form of probation or parole intended to protect the public. Probation departments experimented with intensive forms of...
Boot camps are highly popular residential intermediate sanctions typically used for young offenders and provide for very structured and military-like activities such as strict discipline, physical training and labor, drill, and a regimented schedule of daily activities. Boot camps differ from other intermediate sanctions in that participants are incarcerated, albeit for short and intensive terms, participants are often under the...
Day reporting centers are known by various names: Alternative to Incarceration Programs (ATIs) in New York City, Day Reporting and Day Resource Centers in Texas, Day/Night Reporting Centers in Utah, as well as Day Centers, Day Treatment, and Day Reporting Programs in other states. The day reporting center (DRC) combines high levels of controls over offenders to meet public safety needs with the intensive delivery of services to address...
Spiderman had possibly met his match; the poor super hero had no idea what his nemesis, the Jackal, had in store for him. Like a number of villains in the popular Spiderman comic series, the Jackal was a professor and an evil one at that. In a fit of sheer brilliance, the Jackal had developed a tracking device and fitted a sedated Spiderman with it (Lee, 1974). Spidey awoke to find his lower forearm encased in the fiendish bracelet. If removed, the device would explode...
Fines are monetary penalties requiring the offender to pay money to the court as full or partial punishment for criminal offending. Other financial penalties, such as court costs and supervision fees, are not intermediate sanctions. Court costs offset the costs incurred by the court in the processing of a criminal case. Supervision fees are monies by a person under supervision and are commonly applied to offenders in an effort to offset the cost of corrections, such as probation supervision. ...
Community service is compulsory, free, or donated labor performed by an offender as punishment for a crime. The requirement of an offender to perform community service is often referred to as a community service order. An offender under a community service order is required to perform labor for a certain length of time at charitable not-for-profit agencies, such as domestic violence shelters, or governmental offices, such as courthouses. The work is completed...
Halfway houses are community-based residential facilities designed to limit the freedom of offenders while seeking to reintegrate them into society through employment and other services. They are used primarily to help inmates who are being released from prisons make the often-difficult transition from confinement to the community. Halfway houses are also referred to as adult residential centers, community residential centers/programs, community corrections centers, community release...
Intermediate sanctions have not been established long enough for researchers to determine their overall effectiveness. While some important and comprehensive evaluations have been conducted, much more research is necessary. Some of the research is favorable, for instance with respect to fine payments, completion of community service, and day reporting centers. Other research raises doubts about the effectiveness of intermediate sanctions, such as the effectiveness...